University of South Carolina Leaf 19
This leaf is from an Italian Bible of the early fourteenth century, and measures 23.5 x 17 cm. The leaves from this bible provide us with clear insight into Otto Ege's selection method. All the Leaf 19s on this site contain a large beautiful initial letter denoting the start of a new book of the Bible--thus we can expect that all of the rest of the specimens of Leaf 19 in the Ege portfolios are leaves that contain the ending of one Biblical book and the beginning of another, and we can assume that Ege chose them for the sake of the single large decorated initial. Apart from the arresting initial, the leaves contain red and blue ink scrollwork, with headers in alternating red and blue. Missing pieces of text (sometimes fairly lengthy ones) have attention drawn to them by being outlined in red. See Denison University Leaf 19 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: 2 Corinthians 13:10-13 and Galatians 1:1-2:16 (recto); Galatians 2:16-4:13 (verso).
University of South Carolina Leaf 19 Recto
agam secúndum potestátem, quam Dóminus dedit mihi in ædificatiónem, et non in destructiónem. De cétero, fratres, gaudéte, perfécti estóte, exhortámini, idem sápite, pacem habéte, et Deus pacis et dilectiónis erit vobíscum. Salutáte ínvicem in ósculo sancto. Salútant vos omnes sancti. Grátia Dómini nostri Jesu Christi, et cáritas Dei, et communicátio Sancti Spíritus sit cum ómnibus vobis. Amen.
Explicit secunda epistola ad Corinthiani. Incipit epistola ad Galatiae.
Paulus, Apóstolus non ab homínibus, neque per hóminem, sed per Jesum Christum, et Deum Patrem, qui suscitávit eum a mórtuis: et qui mecum sunt omnes fratres, ecclésiis Galátiæ. Grátia vobis, et pax a Deo Patre, et Dómino nostro Jesu Christo, qui dedit semetípsum pro peccátis nostris, ut eríperet nos de præsénti saeculo nequam, secúndum voluntátem Dei et Patris nostri, cui est glória in saecula sæculórum. Amen. Miror quod sic tam cito transferímini ab eo qui vos vocávit in grátiam Christi in áliud Evangélium: quod non est áliud, nisi sunt áliqui qui vos contúrbant, et volunt convértere Evangélium Christi. Sed licet nos aut ángelus de cælo evangelízet vobis prætérquam quod evangelizávimus vobis, anáthema sit. Sicut prædíximus, et nunc íterum dico: si quis vobis evangelizáverit præter id quod accepístis, anáthema sit. Modo enim homínibus suádeo, an Deo? an quæro homínibus placére? si adhuc homínibus placérem, Christi servus non essem. Notum enim vobis fácio, fratres, Evangélium, quod evangelizátum est a me, quia non est secúndum hóminem: neque enim ego ab hómine accépi illud, neque dídici, sed per revelatiónem Jesu Christi. Audístis enim conversatiónem meam aliquándo in Judaísmo: quóniam supra modum persequébar Ecclésiam Dei, et expugnábam illam, et proficiébam in Judaísmo supra multos coætáneos meos in génere meo, abundántius æmulátor exístens paternárum meárum traditiónum. Cum autem plácuit ei, qui me segregávit ex útero matris meæ, et vocávit per grátiam suam, ut reveláret Fílium suum in me, ut evangelizárem illum in géntibus: contínuo non acquiévi carni et sánguini, neque veni Jerosólymam ad antecessóres meos Apóstolos: sed ábii in Arábiam, et íterum revérsus sum
Damáscum: II. deínde post annos tres veni Jerosólymam vidére Petrum, et mansi apud eum diébus quíndecim: álium autem Apostólorum vidi néminem, nisi Jacóbum fratrem Dómini. Quæ autem scribo vobis, ecce coram Deo, quia non méntior. Deínde veni in partes Sýriæ, et Cilíciæ. Eram autem ignótus fácie ecclésiis Judaeæ, quæ erant in Christo: tantum autem audítum habébant quóniam qui persequebátur nos aliquándo, nunc evangelízat fidem, quam aliquándo expugnábat: et in me clarificábant Deum. [II.] Deínde post annos quatuórdecim, íterum ascéndi Jerosólymam cum Bárnaba, assúmpto et Tito. Ascéndi autem secúndum revelatiónem: et cóntuli cum illis Evangélium, quod prædíco in géntibus, seórsum autem iis qui videbántur áliquid esse: ne forte in vácuum cúrrerem, aut cucurríssem. Sed neque Titus, qui mecum erat, cum esset gentílis, compúlsus est circumcídi: sed propter subintrodúctos falsos fratres, qui subintroiérunt exploráre libertátem nostram, quam habémus in Christo Jesu, ut nos in servitútem redígerent. Quibus neque ad horam céssimus subjectióne, ut véritas Evangélii permáneat apud vos: ab iis autem, qui videbántur esse áliquid (quáles aliquándo fúerint, nihil mea ínterest: Deus persónam hóminis non áccipit): mihi enim qui videbántur esse áliquid, nihil contulérunt. Sed e contra cum vidíssent quod créditum est mihi Evangélium præpútii, sicut et Petro circumcisiónis (qui enim operátus est Petro in apostolátum circumcisiónis, operátus est et mihi inter gentes): et cum cognovíssent grátiam, quæ data est mihi, Jacóbus, et Cephas, et Joánnes, qui videbántur colúmnæ esse, dextras dedérunt mihi, et Bárnabæ societátis: ut nos in gentes, ipsi autem in circumcisiónem: tantum ut páuperum mémores essémus, quod étiam sollícitus fui hoc ipsum fácere. Cum autem venísset Cephas Antiochíam, in fáciem ei réstiti, quia reprehensíbilis erat. Prius enim quam venírent quidam a Jacóbo, cum géntibus edébat: cum autem veníssent, subtrahébat, et segregábat se, timens eos qui ex circumcisióne erant. Et simulatióni ejus consensérunt céteri Judaei, ita ut et Bárnabas ducerétur ab eis in illam simulatiónem. Sed cum vidíssem quod non recte ambulárent ad veritátem Evangélii, dixi Cephæ coram ómnibus: Si tu, cum Judaeus sis, gentíliter vivis, et non judáice: quómodo gentes cogis judaizáre? Nos natúra Judaei, et non ex géntibus peccatóres. Sciéntes autem quod non justificátur homo ex opéribus legis, nisi per fidem Jesu Christi: et nos in Christo Jesu crédimus, ut justificémur ex fide Christi, et non ex opéribus legis: propter quod ex opéribus legis
[2 Corinthians 13:10-13]
10 Therefore I write these things, being absent, that, being present, I may not deal more severely, according to the power which the Lord hath given me unto edification, and not unto destruction. 11 For the rest, brethren, rejoice, be perfect, take exhortation, be of one mind, have peace; and the God of peace and of love shall be with you. 12 Salute one another with a holy kiss. All the saints salute you. 13 The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the charity of God, and the communication of the Holy Ghost be with you all. Amen.
Here ends the second letter to the Corinthians. Here begins the letter to the Galatians.
1 Paul, an apostle, not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead, 2 And all the brethren who are with me, to the churches of Galatia. 3 Grace be to you, and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ, 4 Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present wicked world, according to the will of God and our Father: 5 To whom is glory for ever and ever. Amen. 6 I wonder that you are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ, unto another gospel. 7 Which is not another, only there are some that trouble you, and would pervert the gospel of Christ. 8 But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach a gospel to you besides that which we have preached to you, let him be anathema. 9 As we said before, so now I say again: If any one preach to you a gospel, besides that which you have received, let him be anathema. 10 For do I now persuade men, or God? Or do I seek to please men? If I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ. 11 For I give you to understand, brethren, that the gospel which was preached by me is not according to man. 12 For neither did I receive it of man, nor did I learn it; but by the revelation of Jesus Christ. 13 For you have heard of my conversation in time past in the Jews' religion: how that, beyond measure, I persecuted the church of God, and wasted it. 14 And I made progress in the Jews' religion above many of my equals in my own nation, being more abundantly zealous for the traditions of my fathers. 15 But when it pleased him, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace, 16 To reveal his Son in me, that I might preach him among the Gentiles, immediately I condescended not to flesh and blood. 17 Neither went I to Jerusalem, to the apostles who were before me: but I went into Arabia, and again I returned to Damascus. 18 Then, after three years, I went to Jerusalem, to see Peter, and I tarried with him fifteen days. 19 But other of the apostles I saw none, saving James the brother of the Lord. 20 Now the things which I write to you, behold, before God, I lie not. 21 Afterwards I came into the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 22 And I was unknown by face to the churches of Judea, which were in Christ: 23 But they had heard only: He, who persecuted us in times past, doth now preach the faith which once he impugned: 24 And they glorified God in me.
1 Then, after fourteen years, I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus also with me. 2 And I went up according to revelation; and communicated to them the gospel, which I preach among the Gentiles, but apart to them who seemed to be some thing: lest perhaps I should run, or had run in vain. 3 But neither Titus, who was with me, being a Gentile, was compelled to be circumcised. 4 But because of false brethren unawares brought in, who came in privately to spy our liberty, which we have in Christ Jesus, that they might bring us into servitude. 5 To whom we yielded not by subjection, no not for an hour, that the truth of the gospel might continue with you. 6 But of them who seemed to be some thing, (what they were some time, it is nothing to me, God accepteth not the person of man,) for to me they that seemed to be some thing added nothing. 7 But contrariwise, when they had seen that to me was committed the gospel of the uncircumcision, as to Peter was that of the circumcision. 8 (For he who wrought in Peter to the apostleship of the circumcision, wrought in me also among the Gentiles.) 9 And when they had known the grace that was given to me, James and Cephas and John, who seemed to be pillars, gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship: that we should go unto the Gentiles, and they unto the circumcision: 10 Only that we should be mindful of the poor: which same thing also I was careful to do. 11 But when Cephas was come to Antioch, I withstood him to the face, because he was to be blamed. 12 For before that some came from James, he did eat with the Gentiles: but when they were come, he withdrew and separated himself, fearing them who were of the circumcision. 13 And to his dissimulation the rest of the Jews consented, so that Barnabas also was led by them into that dissimulation. 14 But when I saw that they walked not uprightly unto the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas before them all: If thou, being a Jew, livest after the manner of the Gentiles, and not as the Jews do, how dost thou compel the Gentiles to live as do the Jews? 15 We by nature are Jews, and not of the Gentiles sinners. 16 But knowing that man is not justified by the works of the law, but by the faith of Jesus Christ; we also believe in Christ Jesus, that we may be justified by the faith of Christ, and not by the works of the law...
University of South Carolina Leaf 19 Verso
non justificábitur omnis caro. Quod si quæréntes justificári in Christo, invénti sumus et ipsi peccatóres, numquid Christus peccáti miníster est? Absit. Si enim quæ destrúxi, íterum hæc ædífico: prævaricatórem me constítuo. Ego enim per legem, legi mórtuus sum, ut Deo vivam: Christo confíxus sum cruci. Vivo autem, jam non ego: vivit vero in me Christus. Quod autem nunc vivo in carne: in fide vivo Fílii Dei, qui diléxit me, et trádidit semetípsum pro me. Non abjício grátiam Dei. Si enim per legem justítia, ergo gratis Christus mórtuus est. III. O insensáti Galátæ, quis vos fascinávit non obedíre veritáti, ante quorum óculos Jesus Christus præscríptus est, in vobis crucifíxus? Hoc solum a vobis volo díscere: ex opéribus legis Spíritum accepístis, an ex audítu fídei? sic stulti estis, ut cum Spíritu cœpéritis, nunc carne consummémini? tanta passi estis sine causa? si tamen sine causa. Qui ergo tríbuit vobis Spíritum, et operátur virtútes in vobis: ex opéribus legis, an ex audítu fídei? Sicut scriptum est: Ábraham crédidit Deo, et reputátum est illi ad justítiam: cognoscíte ergo quia qui ex fide sunt, ii sunt fílii Ábrahæ. Próvidens autem Scriptúra quia ex fide justíficat gentes Deus, prænuntiávit Ábrahæ: Quia benedicéntur in te omnes gentes. Ígitur qui ex fide sunt, benedicéntur cum fidéli Ábraham. Quicúmque enim ex opéribus legis sunt, sub maledícto sunt. Scriptum est enim: Maledíctus omnis qui non permánserit in ómnibus quæ scripta sunt in libro legis ut fáciat ea. Quóniam autem in lege nemo justificátur apud Deum, maniféstum est: quia justus ex fide vivit. Lex autem non est ex fide, sed: Qui fécerit ea, vivet in illis. Christus nos redémit de maledícto legis, factus pro nobis maledíctum: quia scriptum est: Maledíctus omnis qui pendet in ligno: ut in géntibus benedíctio Ábrahæ fíeret in Christo Jesu, ut pollicitatiónem Spíritus accipiámus per fidem. Fratres (secúndum hóminem dico) tamen hóminis confirmátum testaméntum nemo spernit, aut superórdinat. Ábrahæ dictæ sunt promissiónes, et sémini ejus. Non dicit: Et semínibus, quasi in multis: sed quasi in uno: Et sémini tuo, qui est Christus. Hoc autem dico, testaméntum confirmátum a Deo: quæ post quadringéntos et trigínta annos facta est lex, non írritum facit ad evacuándam promissiónem. Nam si ex lege hæréditas, jam non ex promissióne.
Ábrahæ autem per repromissiónem donávit Deus. Quid ígitur lex? Propter transgressiónes pósita est donec veníret semen, cui promíserat, ordináta per ángelos in manu mediatóris. Mediátor autem uníus non est: Deus autem unus est. Lex ergo advérsus promíssa Dei? Absit. Si enim data esset lex, quæ posset vivificáre, vere ex lege esset justítia. Sed conclúsit Scriptúra ómnia sub peccáto, ut promíssio ex fide Jesu Christi darétur credéntibus. Prius autem quam veníret fides, sub lege custodiebámur conclúsi in eam fidem quæ revelánda erat. Ítaque lex pædágogus noster fuit in Christo, ut ex fide justificémur. At ubi venit fides, jam non sumus sub pædágogo. Omnes enim fílii Dei estis per fidem, quæ est in Christo Jesu. Quicúmque enim in Christo baptizáti estis, Christum induístis. Non est Judaeus, neque Græcus: non est servus, neque liber: non est másculus, neque fémina. Omnes enim vos unum estis in Christo Jesu. Si autem vos Christi, ergo semen Ábrahæ estis, secúndum promissiónem haeredes. IIII. Dico autem: quanto témpore hæres párvulus est, nihil differt a servo, cum sit dóminus ómnium: sed sub tutóribus et actóribus est usque ad præfinítum tempus a patre: ita et nos cum essémus párvuli, sub eleméntis mundi erámus serviéntes. At ubi venit plenitúdo témporis, misit Deus Fílium suum factum ex mulíere, factum sub lege, ut eos, qui sub lege erant, redímeret, ut adoptiónem filiórum reciperémus. Quóniam autem estis fílii, misit Deus Spíritum Fílii sui in corda vestra, clamántem: Abba, Pater. Ítaque jam non est servus, sed fílius: quod si fílius, et hæres per Deum. Sed tunc quidem ignorántes Deum, iis, qui natúra non sunt dii, serviebátis. Nunc autem cum cognovéritis Deum, immo cógniti sitis a Deo: quómodo convertímini íterum ad infírma et egéna eleménta, quibus dénuo servíre vultis? Dies observátis, et menses, et témpora, et annos. Tímeo vos, ne forte sine causa laboráverim in vobis. Estóte sicut ego, quia et ego sicut vos: fratres, óbsecro vos. Nihil me læsístis. Scitis autem quia per infirmitátem carnis evangelizávi vobis jamprídem: et tentatiónem vestram
...because by the works of the law no flesh shall be justified. 17 But if while we seek to be justified in Christ, we ourselves also are found sinners; is Christ then the minister of sin? God forbid. 18 For if I build up again the things which I have destroyed, I make myself a prevaricator. 19 For I, through the law, am dead to the law, that I may live to God: with Christ I am nailed to the cross. 20 And I live, now not I; but Christ liveth in me. And that I live now in the flesh: I live in the faith of the Son of God, who loved me, and delivered himself for me. 21 I cast not away the grace of God. For if justice be by the law, then Christ died in vain.
1 O senseless Galatians, who hath bewitched you that you should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been set forth, crucified among you? 2 This only would I learn of you: Did you receive the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? 3 Are you so foolish, that, whereas you began in the Spirit, you would now be made perfect by the flesh? 4 Have you suffered so great things in vain? If it be yet in vain. 5 He therefore who giveth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you; doth he do it by the works of the law, or by the hearing of the faith? 6 As it is written: Abraham believed God, and it was reputed to him unto justice. 7 Know ye therefore, that they who are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham. 8 And the scripture, foreseeing, that God justifieth the Gentiles by faith, told unto Abraham before: In thee shall all nations be blessed. 9 Therefore they that are of faith, shall be blessed with faithful Abraham. 10 For as many as are of the works of the law, are under a curse. For it is written: Cursed is every one, that abideth not in all things, which are written in the book of the law to do them. 11 But that in the law no man is justified with God, it is manifest: because the just man liveth by faith. 12 But the law is not of faith: but, He that doth those things, shall live in them. 13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us: for it is written: Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree: 14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Christ Jesus: that we may receive the promise of the Spirit by faith. 15 Brethren (I speak after the manner of man,) yet a man's testament, if it be confirmed, no man despiseth, nor addeth to it. 16 To Abraham were the promises made and to his seed. He saith not, And to his seeds, as of many: but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ. 17 Now this I say, that the testament which was confirmed by God, the law which was made after four hundred and thirty years, doth not disannul, to make the promise of no effect. 18 For if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise. But God gave it to Abraham by promise. 19 Why then was the law? It was set because of transgressions, until the seed should come, to whom he made the promise, being ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator. 20 Now a mediator is not of one: but God is one. 21 Was the law then against the promises of God? God forbid. For if there had been a law given which could give life, verily justice should have been by the law. 22 But the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise, by the faith of Jesus Christ, might be given to them that believe. 23 But before the faith came, we were kept under the law shut up, unto that faith which was to be revealed. 24 Wherefore the law was our pedagogue in Christ, that we might be justified by faith. 25 But after the faith is come, we are no longer under a pedagogue. 26 For you are all the children of God by faith, in Christ Jesus. 27 For as many of you as have been baptized in Christ, have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor Greek: there is neither bond nor free: there is neither male nor female. For you are all one in Christ Jesus. 29 And if you be Christ's, then are you the seed of Abraham, heirs according to the promise.
1 Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he differeth nothing from a servant, though he be lord of all; 2 But is under tutors and governors until the time appointed by the father: 3 So we also, when we were children, were serving under the elements of the world. 4 But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent his Son, made of a woman, made under the law: 5 That he might redeem them who were under the law: that we might receive the adoption of sons. 6 And because you are sons, God hath sent the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying: Abba, Father. 7 Therefore now he is not a servant, but a son. And if a son, an heir also through God. 8 But then indeed, not knowing God, you served them, who, by nature, are not gods. 9 But now, after that you have known God, or rather are known by God: how turn you again to the weak and needy elements, which you desire to serve again? 10 You observe days, and months, and times, and years. 11 I am afraid of you, lest perhaps I have laboured in vain among you. 12 Be ye as I, because I also am as you: brethren, I beseech you: you have not injured me at all. 13 And you know, how through infirmity of the flesh, I preached the gospel to you heretofore: and your temptation in my flesh...