University of South Carolina Leaf 14
This leaf comes from a French Bible of the late thirteenth century. The vellum is thin, white, and supple with minimal yellowing, measuring a substantial 40.5 x 27 cm. Lining is done in light ink or lead, and the script is an angular gothic. The bulk of the text is in brown ink, with red, blue, coral, white, and beige for the decorations. This leaf is heavily illuminated and decorated, including elaborate initials and foliage, highlighted book names and chapter numbers, and extensive use of gold leaf. But while the decoration is exceptional, we see on these leaves an unusual number of scribal corrections (especially erasures and strikethroughs). See Denison University Leaf 14 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: Numbers 8:10-10:4 (recto) and 10:4-11:13 (verso).
University of South Carolina Leaf 14 Recto
suas super eos. Et ófferet Áaron Levítas, munus in conspéctu Dómini a fíliis Israël, ut sérviant in ministério ejus. Levítæ quoque ponent manus suas super cápita boum, e quibus unum fácies pro peccáto, et álterum in holocáustum Dómini, ut depréceris pro eis. Statuésque Levítas in conspéctu Áaron et filiórum ejus, et consecrábis oblátos Dómino, ac separábis de médio filiórum Israël, ut sint mei. Et póstea ingrediéntur tabernáculum fóederis, ut sérviant mihi. Sicque purificábis et consecrábis eos in oblatiónem Dómini: quóniam bono donáti sunt mihi a fíliis Israël. Pro primogénitis quæ apériunt omnem vulvam in Israël, accépi eos. Mea sunt enim ómnia primogénita filiórum Israël, tam ex homínibus quam ex juméntis. Ex die quo percússi omne primogénitum in terra Ægýpti, sanctificávi eos mihi: et tuli Levítas pro cunctis primogénitis filiórum Israël, tradidíque eos dono Áaron et fíliis ejus de médio pópuli, ut sérviant mihi pro Israël in tabernáculo fóederis, et orent pro eis ne sit in pópulo plaga, si ausi fúerint accédere ad sanctuárium. Fecerúntque Móyses et Áaron et omnis multitúdo filiórum Israël super Levítas quæ præcéperat Dóminus Móysi: purificatíque sunt, et lavérunt vestiménta sua. Elevavítque eos Áaron in conspéctu Dómini, et orávit pro eis, ut purificáti ingrederéntur ad offícia sua in tabernáculum fóederis coram Áaron et fíliis ejus. Sicut præcéperat Dóminus Móysi de Levítis, ita factum est. Locutúsque est Dóminus ad Móysen, dicens: Hæc est lex Levitárum: a vigínti quinque annis et supra, ingrediéntur ut minístrent in tabernáculo fóederis. Cumque quinquagésimum annum ætátis impléverint, servíre cessábunt, erúntque minístri fratrum suórum in tabernáculo fóederis, ut custódiant quæ sibi fuérunt commendáta: ópera autem ipsa non fáciant. Sic dispónes Levítis in custódiis suis. IX. Locútus est Dóminus ad Móysen in desérto Sínai anno secúndo, postquam egréssi sunt de terra Ægýpti, mense primo, dicens: Fáciant fílii Israël Phase in témpore suo, quartadécima die mensis hujus ad vésperam, juxta omnes cæremónias et justificatiónes ejus. Præcepítque Móyses fíliis Israël ut fácerent Phase. Qui fecérunt témpore suo, quartadécima die mensis ad vésperam, in monte Sínai. Juxta ómnia quæ mandáverat Dóminus Móysi, fecérunt fílii Israël. Ecce autem quidam immúndi super ánima hóminis, qui non póterant fácere Phase in die illo, accedéntes ad Móysen et Áaron, dixérunt eis: Immúndi sumus super ánima hóminis: quare frau-
-dámur ut non valeámus oblatiónem offérre Dómino in témpore suo inter fílios Israël? Quibus respóndit Móyses: State ut cónsulam quid præcípiat Dóminus de vobis. Locutúsque est Dóminus ad Móysen, dicens: Lóquere fíliis Israël: Homo, qui fúerit immúndus super ánima, sive in via procul in gente vestra, fáciat Phase Dómino in mense secúndo, quartadécima die mensis ad vésperam. Cum ázymis et lactúcis agréstibus cómedent illud: non relínquent ex eo quíppiam usque mane, et os ejus non confríngent: omnem ritum Phase observábunt. Si quis autem et mundus est, et in itínere non fuit, et tamen non fecit Phase, exterminábitur ánima illa de pópulis suis, quia sacrifícium Dómino non óbtulit témpore suo: peccátum suum ipse portábit. Peregrínus quoque et ádvena si fúerint apud vos, fácient Phase Dómino juxta cæremónias et justificatiónes ejus. Præcéptum idem erit apud vos tam advénæ quam indígenæ. Ígitur die qua eréctum est tabernáculum, opéruit illud nubes. A véspere autem super tentórium erat quasi spécies ignis usque mane. Sic fiébat júgiter: per diem operiébat illud nubes, et per noctem quasi spécies ignis. Cumque abláta fuísset nubes, quæ tabernáculum protegébat, tunc proficiscebántur fílii Israël: et in loco ubi stetísset nubes, ibi castrametabántur. Ad impérium Dómini proficiscebántur, et ad impérium illíus figébant tabernáculum. Cunctis diébus quibus stabat nubes super tabernáculum, manébant in eódem loco: et si evenísset ut multo témpore manéret super illud, erant fílii Israël in excúbiis Dómini, et non proficiscebántur quot diébus fuísset nubes super tabernáculum. Ad impérium Dómini erigébant tentória, et ad impérium illíus deponébant. Si fuísset nubes a véspere usque mane, et statim dilúculo tabernáculum reliquísset, proficiscebántur: et si post diem et noctem recessísset, dissipábant tentória. Si vero bíduo aut uno mense vel longióri témpore fuísset super tabernáculum, manébant fílii Israël in eódem loco, et non proficiscebántur: statim autem ut recessísset, movébant castra. Per verbum Dómini figébant tentória, et per verbum illíus proficiscebántur: erántque in excúbiis Dómini juxta impérium ejus per manum Móysi. X. Locutúsque est Dóminus ad Móysen, dicens: Fac tibi duas tubas argénteas dúctiles, quibus convocáre possis multitúdinem quando movénda sunt castra. Cumque increpúeris tubis, congregábitur ad te omnis turba ad óstium tabernáculi fóederis. Si semel clángueris
...their hands upon them: 11 And Aaron shall offer the Levites, as a gift in the sight of the Lord from the children of Israel, that they may serve in his ministry. 12 The Levites also shall put their hands upon the heads of the oxen, of which thou shalt sacrifice one for sin, and the other for a holocaust to the Lord, to pray for them. 13 And thou shalt set the Levites in the sight of Aaron and of his sons, and shalt consecrate them being offered to the Lord, 14 And shalt separate them from the midst of the children of Israel, to be mine. 15 And afterwards they shall enter into the tabernacle of the covenant, to serve me. And thus shalt thou purify and consecrate them for an oblation of the Lord: for as a gift they were given me by the children of Israel. 16 I have taken them instead of the firstborn that open every womb in Israel, 17 For all the firstborn of the children of Israel, both of men and of beasts, are mine. From the day that I slew every firstborn in the land of Egypt, have I sanctified them to myself: 18 And I have taken the Levites for all the firstborn of the children of Israel: 19 And have delivered them for a gift to Aaron and his sons out of the midst of the people, to serve me for Israel in the tabernacle of the covenant, and to pray for them, lest there should be a plague among the people, if they should presume to approach unto my sanctuary. 20 And Moses and Aaron and all the multitude of the children of Israel did with the Levites all that the Lord had commanded Moses: 21 And they were purified, and washed their garments. And Aaron lifted them up in the sight of the Lord, and prayed for them, 22 That being purified they might go into the tabernacle of the covenant to do their services before Aaron and his sons. As the Lord had commanded Moses touching the Levites, so was it done. 23 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 24 This is the law of the Levites: From twenty-five years old and upwards, they shall go in to minister in the tabernacle of the covenant. 25 And when they shall have accomplished the fiftieth year of their age, they shall cease to serve: 26 And they shall be the ministers of their brethren in the tabernacle of the covenant, to keep the things that are committed to their care, but not to do the works. Thus shalt thou order the Levites touching their charge.
1 The Lord spoke to Moses in the desert of Sinai, the second year after they were come out of the land of Egypt, in the first month, saying: 2 Let the children of Israel make the phase in its due time, 3 The fourteenth day of this month in the evening, according to all the ceremonies and justifications thereof. 4 And Moses commanded the children of Israel that they should make the phase. 5 And they made it in its proper time: the fourteenth day of the month at evening, in mount Sinai. The children of Israel did according to all things that the Lord had commanded Moses. 6 But behold some who were unclean by occasion of the soul of a man, who could not make the phase on that day, coming to Moses and Aaron, 7 Said to them: We are unclean by occasion of the soul of a man. Why are we kept back that we may not offer in its season the offering to the Lord among the children of Israel? 8 And Moses answered them: Stay that I may consult the Lord what he will ordain concerning you. 9 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 10 Say to the children of Israel: The man that shall be unclean by occasion of one that is dead, or shall be in a journey afar off in your nation, let him make the phase to the Lord. 11 In the second month, on the fourteenth day of the month in the evening, they shall eat it with unleavened bread and wild lettuce: 12 They shall not leave any thing thereof until morning, nor break a bone thereof, they shall observe all the ceremonies of the phase. 13 But if any man is clean, and was not on a journey, and did not make the phase, that soul shall be cut off from among his people, because he offered not sacrifice to the Lord in due season: he shall bear his sin. 14 The sojourner also and the stranger if they be among you, shall make the phase to the Lord according to the ceremonies and justifications thereof. The same ordinance shall be with you both for the stranger, and for him that was born in the land. 15 Now on the day that the tabernacle was reared up, a cloud covered it. But from the evening there was over the tabernacle, as it were, the appearance of fire until the morning. 16 So it was always: by day the cloud covered it, and by night as it were the appearance of fire. 17 And when the cloud that covered the tabernacle was taken up, then the children of Israel marched forward: and in the place where the cloud stood still, there they camped. 18 At the commandment of the Lord they marched, and at his commandment they pitched the tabernacle. All the days that the cloud abode over the tabernacle, they remained in the same place: 19 And if it was so that it continued over it a long time, the children of Israel kept the watches of the Lord, and marched not, 20 For as many days soever as the cloud stayed over the tabernacle. At the commandment of the Lord they pitched their tents, and at his commandment they took them down. 21 If the cloud tarried from evening until morning, and immediately at break of day left the tabernacle, they marched forward: and if it departed after a day and a night, they took down their tents. 22 But if it remained over the tabernacle for two days or a month or a longer time, the children of Israel remained in the same place, and marched not: but immediately as soon as it departed, they removed the camp. 23 By the word of the Lord they pitched their tents, and by his word they marched: and kept the watches of the Lord according to his commandment by the hand of Moses.
1 And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: 2 Make thee two trumpets of beaten silver, wherewith thou mayest call together the multitude when the camp is to be removed. 3 And when thou shalt sound the trumpets, all the multitude shall gather unto thee to the door of the tabernacle of the covenant. 4 If thou sound but once...
University of South Carolina Leaf 14 Verso
vénient ad te príncipes, et cápita multitúdinis Ísraël. Si autem prolíxior atque concísus clangor increpúerit, movébunt castra primi qui sunt ad orientálem plagam. In secúndo autem sónitu et pari ululátu tubæ, levábunt tentória qui hábitant ad merídiem; et juxta hunc modum réliqui fácient, ululántibus tubis in profectiónem. Quando autem congregándus est pópulus, simplex tubárum clangor erit, et non concíse ululábunt. Fílii autem Áaron sacerdótes clangent tubis: erítque hoc legítimum sempitérnum in generatiónibus vestris. Si exiéritis ad bellum de terra vestra contra hostes qui dímicant advérsum vos, clangétis ululántibus tubis, et erit recordátio vestri coram Dómino Deo vestro, ut eruámini de mánibus inimicórum vestrórum. Siquándo habébitis épulum, et dies festos, et caléndas, canétis tubis super holocáustis, et pacíficis víctimis, ut sint vobis in recordatiónem Dei vestri. Ego Dóminus Deus vester. Anno secúndo, mense secúndo, vigésima die mensis, eleváta est nubes de tabernáculo fóederis: profectíque sunt fílii Israël per turmas suas de desérto Sínai, et recúbuit nubes in solitúdine Pharan. Moverúntque castra primi juxta impérium Dómini in manu Móysi. Fílii Juda per turmas suas: quorum princeps erat Nahásson fílius Amínadab. In tribu filiórum Issáchar fuit princeps Nathánaël fílius Suar. In tribu Zábulon erat princeps Elíab fílius Helon. Depositúmque est tabernáculum, quod portántes egréssi sunt fílii Gerson et Merári. Profectíque sunt et fílii Ruben, per turmas et órdinem suum: quorum princeps erat Helísur fílius Sédeur. In tribu autem filiórum Símeon, princeps fuit Salámiel fílius Surisáddai. Porro in tribu Gad erat princeps Eliásaph fílius Duel. Profectíque sunt et Caáthitæ portántes sanctuárium. Támdiu tabernáculum portabátur, donec venírent ad erectiónis locum. Movérunt castra et fílii Éphraim per turmas suas, in quorum exércitu princeps erat Elisáma fílius Ámmiud. In tribu autem filiórum Manásse princeps fuit Gamáliel fílius Phadássur. Et in tribu Bénjamin erat dux Ábidan fílius Gedeónis. Novíssimi castrórum ómnium profécti sunt fílii Dan per turmas suas, in quorum exércitu princeps fuit Ahiézer fílius Ammisáddai. In tribu autem filiórum Aser erat princeps Phégiel fílius Ochran. Et in tribu filiórum Nephtháli princeps fuit Ahíra fílius Enan. Hæc sunt castra, et profectiónes filiórum Israël per turmas suas quando egrediebántur. Dixítque Móyses Hobab fílio Raguel Madiánitæ, cognáto suo: Proficíscimur ad locum quem Dóminus datúrus est nobis: veni nobíscum, ut benefaci-
-ámus tibi, quia Dóminus bona promísit Israëli. Cui ille respóndit: Non vadam tecum, sed revértar in terram meam, in qua natus sum. Et ille: Noli, inquit, nos relínquere: tu enim nosti in quibus locis per desértum castra pónere debeámus, et eris ductor noster. Cumque nobíscum véneris, quidquid óptimum fúerit ex ópibus, quas nobis traditúrus est Dóminus, dábimus tibi. Profécti sunt ergo de monte Dómini viam trium diérum, arcáque fóederis Dómini præcedébat eos, per dies tres próvidens castrórum locum. Nubes quoque Dómini super eos erat per diem cum incéderent. Cumque elevarétur arca, dicébat Móyses: Surge, Dómine, et dissipéntur inimíci tui, et fúgiant qui odérunt te, a fácie tua. Cum autem deponerétur, aiébat: Revertére, Dómine, ad multitúdinem exércitus Israël. XI. Intérea ortum est murmur pópuli, quasi doléntium pro labóre, contra Dóminum. Quod cum audísset Dóminus, irátus est. Et accénsus in eos ignis Dómini, devorávit extrémam castrórum partem. Cumque clamásset pópulus ad Móysen, orávit Móyses ad Dóminum, et absórptus est ignis. Vocavítque nomen illíus, Incénsio: eo quod incénsus fuísset contra eos ignis Dómini. Vulgus quippe promíscuum, quod ascénderat cum eis, flagrávit desidério, sedens et flens, junctis sibi páriter fíliis Ísraël, et ait: Quis dabit nobis ad vescéndum carnes? recordámur píscium quos comedebámus in Ægýpto gratis: in mentem nobis véniunt cucúmeres, et pepónes, porríque, et cæpe, et állia. Ánima nostra árida est: nihil áliud respíciunt óculi nostri nisi man. Erat autem man quasi semen coriándri, colóris bdéllii. Circuibátque pópulus, et cólligens illud, frangébat mola, sive terébat in mortário, coquens in olla, et fáciens ex eo tórtulas sapóris quasi panis oleáti. Cumque descénderet nocte super castra ros, descendébat páriter et man. Audívit ergo Móyses flentem pópulum per famílias, síngulos per óstia tentórii sui. Iratúsque est furor Dómini valde: sed et Móysi intoleránda res visa est, et ait ad Dóminum: Cur afflixísti servum tuum? quare non invénio grátiam coram te? et cur imposuísti pondus univérsi pópuli hujus super me? Numquid ego concépi omnem hanc multitúdinem, vel génui eam, ut dicas mihi: Porta eos in sinu tuo sicut portáre solet nutrix infántulum, et defer in terram, pro qua jurásti pátribus eórum? Unde mihi carnes ut dem tantæ multitúdini? flent contra me, dicéntes: Da nobis carnes ut co-
...the princes and the heads of the multitude of Israel shall come to thee. 5 But if the sound of the trumpets be longer, and with interruptions, they that are on the east side, shall first go forward. 6 And at the second sounding and like noise of the trumpet, they who lie on the south side shall take up their tents. And after this manner shall the rest do, when the trumpets shall sound for a march. 7 But when the people is to be gathered together, the sound of the trumpets shall be plain, and they shall not make a broken sound. 8 And the sons of Aaron the priest shall sound the trumpets: and this shall be an ordinance for ever in your generations. 9 If you go forth to war out of your land against the enemies that fight against you, you shall sound aloud with the trumpets, and there shall be a remembrance of you before the Lord your God, that you may be delivered out of the hands of your enemies. 10 If at any time you shall have a banquet, and on your festival days, and on the first days of your months, you shall sound the trumpets over the holocausts, and the sacrifices of peace offerings, that they may be to you for a remembrance of your God. I am the Lord your God. 11 The second year, in the second month, the twentieth day of the month, the cloud was taken up from the tabernacle of the covenant. 12 And the children of Israel marched by their troops from the desert of Sinai, and the cloud rested in the wilderness of Pharan. 13 And the first went forward according to the commandment of the Lord by the hand of Moses. 14 The sons of Juda by their troops: whose prince was Nahasson the son of Aminadab. 15 In the tribe of the sons of Issachar, the prince was Nathanael the son of Suar. 16 In the tribe of Zabulon, the prince was Eliab the son of Helon. 17 And the tabernacle was taken down, and the sons of Gerson and Merari set forward, bearing it. 18 And the sons of Ruben also marched, by their troops and ranks, whose prince was Helisur the son of Sedeur. 19 And in the tribe of Simeon, the prince was Salamiel the son of Surisaddai. 20 And in the tribe of Gad, the prince was Eliasaph the son of Duel. 21 Then the Caathites also marched carrying the sanctuary. So long was the tabernacle carried, till they came to the place of setting it up. 22 The sons of Ephraim also moved their camp by their troops, in whose army the prince was Elisama the son of Ammiud. 23 And in the tribe of the sons of Manasses, the prince was Gamaliel the son of Phadassur. 24 And in the tribe of Benjamin, the prince was Abidan the son of Gedeon. 25 The last of all the camp marched the sons of Dan by their troops, in whose army the prince was Ahiezer the son of Ammisaddai. 26 And in the tribe of the sons of Aser, the prince was Phegiel the son of Ochran. 27 And in the tribe of the sons of Nephtali, the prince was Ahira the son of Enan. 28 This was the order of the camps, and marches of the children of Israel by their troops, when they set forward. 29 And Moses said to Hobab the son of Raguel the Madianite, his kinsman: We are going towards the place which the Lord will give us: come with us, that we may do thee good: for the Lord hath promised good things to Israel. 30 But he answered him: I will not go with thee, but I will return to my country, wherein I was born. 31 And he said: Do not leave us: for thou knowest in what places we should encamp in the wilderness, and thou shalt be our guide. 32 And if thou comest with us, we will give thee what is the best of the riches which the Lord shall deliver to us. 33 So they marched from the mount of the Lord three days' journey, and the ark of the covenant of the Lord went before them, for three days providing a place for the camp. 34 The cloud also of the Lord was over them by day when they marched. 35 And when the ark was lifted up, Moses said: Arise, O Lord, and let thy enemies be scattered, and let them that hate thee, flee from before thy face. 36 And when it was set down, he said: Return, O Lord, to the multitude of the host of Israel.
1 In the mean time there arose a murmuring of the people against the Lord, as it were repining at their fatigue. And when the Lord heard it he was angry. And the fire of the Lord being kindled against them, devoured them that were at the uttermost part of the camp. 2 And when the people cried to Moses, Moses prayed to the Lord, and the fire was swallowed up. 3 And he called the name of that place, The burning: for that the fire of the Lord had been kindled against them. 4 For a mixt multitude of people, that came up with them, burned with desire, sitting and weeping, the children of Israel also being joined with them, and said: Who shall give us flesh to eat? 5 We remember the fish that we ate in Egypt free cost: the cucumbers come into our mind, and the melons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the garlic. 6 Our soul is dry, our eyes behold nothing else but manna. 7 Now the manna was like coriander seed, of the colour of bdellium. 8 And the people went about, and gathering it, ground it in a mill, or beat it in a mortar, and boiled it in a pot, and made cakes thereof of the taste of bread tempered with oil. 9 And when the dew fell in the night upon the camp, the manna also fell with it. 10 Now Moses heard the people weeping by their families, every one at the door of his tent. And the wrath of the Lord was exceedingly enkindled: to Moses also the thing seemed insupportable. 11 And he said to the Lord: Why hast thou afflicted thy servant? wherefore do I not find favour before thee? and why hast thou laid the weight of all this people upon me? 12 Have I conceived all this multitude, or begotten them, that thou shouldst say to me: Carry them in thy bosom as the nurse is wont to carry the little infant, and bear them into the land, for which thou hast sworn to their fathers? 13 Whence should I have flesh to give to so great a multitude? they weep against me, saying: Give us flesh that we may eat.