Rochester Institute of Technology Leaf 05
This leaf is from an early thirteenth century French copy of St. Jerome's edition of the Bible. At 32.4cm x 22.5cm, the leaf is one of the larger in the collection. The vellum is very thin, fine, and white, with only a minimum of yellowing, due to dirt rather than the quality of the vellum. Holes from both the binding and lining, which is in lead, are evident. The bulk of the text is in black ink, with decoration and highlight in both red and blue. Decorations are minimal, including a few squiggle flourishes accompanying the marginal chapter numbers, as well as book names and the beginnings of verses, and guide letters for the initials. See Denison University Leaf 05 for more information on this manuscript.
Text: 2 Maccabees 3:31-4:42 (verso). A scan of the recto of this leaf is currently unavailable.
Rochester Institute of Technology Leaf 05 Verso
-dóri quidam rogábant conféstim Óniam, ut invocáret Altíssimum ut vitam donáret ei qui in suprémo spíritu erat constitútus. Consíderans autem summus sacérdos ne forte rex suspicarétur malítiam áliquam ex Judaeis circa Heliodórum consummátum, óbtulit pro salúte viri hóstiam salutárem. Cumque summus sacérdos exoráret, iídem júvenes eísdem véstibus amícti astántes Heliodóro, dixérunt: Óniæ sacerdóti grátias age: nam propter eum Dóminus tibi vitam donávit. Tu autem a Deo flagellátus, núntia ómnibus magnália Dei, et potestátem. Et his dictis, non comparuérunt. Heliodórus autem, hóstia Deo obláta, et votis magnis promíssis ei qui vívere illi concéssit, et Óniæ grátias agens, recépto exércitu, repedábat ad regem. Testabátur autem ómnibus ea quæ sub óculis suis víderat ópera magni Dei. Cum autem rex interrogásset Heliodórum, quis esset aptus adhuc semel Jerosólymam mitti, ait: Si quem habes hostem, aut regni tui insidiatórem, mitte illuc, et flagellátum eum recípies, si tamen eváserit: eo quod in loco sit vere Dei quædam virtus. Nam ipse, qui habet in cælis habitatiónem, visitátor et adjútor est loci illíus, et veniéntes ad malefaciéndum pércutit ac perdit. Ígitur de Heliodóro et ærárii custódia ita res se habet. IIII. Simon autem prædíctus, pecuniárum et pátriæ delátor, male loquebátur de Ónia, tamquam ipse Heliodórum instigásset ad hæc, et ipse fuísset incéntor malórum: provisorémque civitátis, ac defensórem gentis suæ, et æmulatórem legis Dei, audébat insidiatórem regni dícere. Sed cum inimicítiæ in tantum procéderent ut étiam per quosdam Simónis necessários homicídia fíerent, consíderans Ónias perículum contentiónis, et Apollónium insaníre, utpóte ducem Cœlesýriæ et Phóenicis, ad augéndam malítiam Simónis ad regem se cóntulit, non ut cívium accusátor, sed commúnem utilitátem apud semetípsum univérsæ multitúdinis consíderans. Vidébat enim sine regáli providéntia impossíbile esse pacem rebus dari, nec Simónem posse cessáre a stultítia sua. Sed post Seleúci vitæ excéssum, cum suscepísset regnum Antíochus, qui Nóbilis appellabátur, ambiébat Jason frater Óniæ summum sacerdótium: ádito rege, promíttens ei argénti talénta trecénta sexagínta, et ex reddítibus áliis talénta octogínta, super hæc promittébat et ália centum quinquagínta, si potestáti ejus concederétur, gymnásium et ephébiam sibi constitúere, et eos qui in Jerosólymis erant, Antióchenos scríbere. Quod cum rex annuísset, et obtinuísset principátum, statim ad gentílem ritum contríbules suos transférre cœpit, et amótis his quæ humanitátis causa Judaeis a régibus fúerant constitúta per Joánnem patrem Eupolémi, qui apud Romános de amicítia et societáte functus est legatióne legítima, cívium jura destítuens, prava institúta sanciébat. Étenim ausus est sub ipsa arce gymnásium constitúere, et óptimos quosque ephebórum in lupanáribus pónere. Erat autem hoc non inítium, sed increméntum quoddam, et proféctus gentílis et alienígenæ conversatiónis, propter ímpii et non sacerdótis Jasónis nefárium, et ináuditum scelus: ita ut sacerdótes jam non circa altáris offícia déditi essent, sed contémpto templo et sacrifíciis negléctis, festinárent partícipes fíeri palaestræ et præbitiónis ejus injústæ, et in exercítiis disci. Et pátrios quidem honóres nihil habéntes, græcas glórias óptimas arbitrabántur: quarum grátia periculósa eos conténtio habébat, et eórum institúta æmulabántur, ac per ómnia his consímiles esse cupiébant, quos hoste et peremptóres habúerant. In leges enim divínas ímpie ágere impúne non cedit: sed hoc tempus sequens declarábit. Cum autem quinquennális agon Tyri celebrarétur, et rex præsens esset, misit Jason facinorósus ab Jerosólymis viros peccatóres, portántes arg-
-énti didráchmas trecéntas in sacríficum Hérculis: quas postulavérunt hi qui asportáverant ne in sacrifíciis erogaréntur, quia non opórteret, sed in álios sumptus eas deputári. Sed hæ oblátæ sunt quidem ab eo qui míserat in sacrifícium Hérculis: propter præséntes autem datæ sunt in fábricam návium trirémium. Misso autem in Ægýptum Apollónio Mnésthei fílio propter primátes Ptolemaei Philometóris regis, cum cognovísset Antíochus aliénum se a negótiis regni efféctum, própriis utilitátibus cónsulens, proféctus inde venit Joppen, et inde Jerosólymam. Et magnífice ab Jasóne et civitáte suscéptus, cum faculárum lumínibus et láudibus ingréssus est: et inde in Phóenicen exércitum convértit. Et post triénnii tempus, misit Jason Menélaum supradícti Simónis fratrem portántem pecúnias regi, et de negótiis necessáriis respónsa perlatúrum. At ille commendátus regi, cum magnificásset fáciem potestátis ejus, in semetípsum retórsit summum sacerdótium, superpónens Jasóni talénta argénti trecénta. Acceptísque a rege mandátis, venit, nihil quidem habens dignum sacerdótio: ánimos vero crúdelis tyránni, et feræ béluæ iram gerens. Et Jason quidem, qui próprium fratrem captiváverat, ipse decéptus profúgus in Ammánitem expúlsus est regiónem. Menélaus autem principátum quidem obtínuit: de pecúniis vero regi promíssis, nihil agébat, cum exactiónem fáceret Sostrátus, qui arci erat præpósitus, nam ad hunc exáctio vectigálium pertinébant: quam ob causam utríque ad regem sunt evocáti. Et Menélaus amótus est a sacerdótio, succedénte Lysimácho fratre suo: Sostrátus autem prælátus est Cýpriis. Et cum hæc ageréntur, cóntigit Tharsénses et Mallótas seditiónem movére, eo quod Antióchidi regis concubínæ dono essent dati. Festinánter ítaque rex venit sedáre illos, relícto suffécto uno ex comítibus suis Andrónico. Ratus autem Menélaus accepísse se tempus opportúnum, áurea quædam vasa e templo furátus donávit Andrónico, et ália vendíderat Tyri, et per vicínas civitátes. Quod cum certíssime cognovísset Ónias, arguébat eum, ipse in loco tuto se cóntinens Antiochíæ secus Daphnem. Unde Menélaus accédens ad Andrónicum, rogábat ut Óniam interfíceret. Qui cum venísset ad Óniam, et datis dextris cum jurejurándo (quámvis esset ei suspéctus) suasísset de ásylo procédere, statim eum perémit, non véritus justítiam. Ob quam causam non solum Judaei, sed áliæ quoque natiónes indignabántur, et moléste ferébant de nece tanti viri injústa. Sed regréssum regem de Cilíciæ locis adiérunt Judaei apud Antiochíam, simul et Græci, conqueréntes de iníqua nece Óniæ. Contristátus ítaque ánimo Antíochus propter Óniam, et flexus ad misericórdiam, lácrimas fudit, recordátus defúncti sobrietátem et modéstiam: accensísque ánimis Andrónicum púrpura exútum, per totam civitátem jubet circumdúci: et in eódem loco in quo in Óniam impietátem commíserat, sacrílegum vita privári, Dómino illi condígnam retribuénte pœnam. Multis autem sacrilégiis in templo a Lysimácho commíssis Menélai consílio, et divulgáta fama, congregáta est multitúdo advérsum Lysimáchum multo jam auro exportáto. Turbis autem insurgéntibus, et ánimis ira replétis, Lysimáchus armátis fere tribus míllibus iníquis mánibus uti cœpit, duce quodam tyránno, ætáte páriter et deméntia provécto. Sed ut intellexérunt conátum Lysimáchi, álii lápides, álii fustes válidos arripúere: quidam vero cínerem in Lysimáchum jécere. Et multi quidem vulneráti, quidam autem et prostráti, omnes
[2 Maccabees 3:31-4:42]
...Onias, that he would call upon the most High to grant him his life, who was ready to give up the ghost. 32 So the high priest considering that the king might perhaps suspect that some mischief had been done to Heliodorus by the Jews, offered a sacrifice of health for the recovery of the man. 33 And when the high priest was praying, the same young men in the same clothing stood by Heliodorus, and said to him: Give thanks to Onias the priest: because for his sake the Lord hath granted thee life. 34 And thou having been scourged by God, declare unto all men the great works and the power of God. And having spoken thus, they appeared no more. 35 So Heliodorus after he had offered a sacrifice to God, and made great vows to him, that had granted him life, and given thanks to Onias, taking his troops with him, returned to the king. 36 And he testified to all men the works of the great God, which he had seen with his own eyes. 37 And when the king asked Heliodorus, who might be a fit man to be sent yet once more to Jerusalem, he said: 38 If thou hast any enemy or traitor to thy kingdom, send him thither, and thou shalt receive him again scourged, if so be he escape: for there is undoubtedly in that place a certain power of God. 39 For he that hath his dwelling in the heavens, is the visitor, and protector of that place, and he striketh and destroyeth them that come to do evil to it. 40 And the things concerning Heliodorus, and the keeping of the treasury fell out in this manner.
1 But Simon, of whom we spoke before, who was the betrayer of the money, and of his country, spoke ill of Onias, as though he had incited Heliodorus to do these things, and had been the promoter of evils: 2 And he presumed to call him a traitor to the kingdom, who provided for the city, and defended his nation, and was zealous for the law of God. 3 But when the enmities proceeded so far, that murders also were committed by some of Simon's friends: 4 Onias considering the danger of this contention, and that Apollonius, who was the governor of Celesyria and Phenicia, was outrageous, which increased the malice of Simon, went to the king, 5 Not to be an accuser of his countrymen, but with a view to the common good of all the people. 6 For he saw that, except the king took care, it was impossible that matters should be settled in peace, or that Simon would cease from his folly. 7 But after the death of Seleucus, when Antiochus, who was called the Illustrious, had taken possession of the kingdom, Jason the brother of Onias ambitiously sought the high priesthood: 8 And went to the king, promising him three hundred and sixty talents of silver, and out of other revenues fourscore talents. 9 Besides this he promised also a hundred and fifty more, if he might have license to set him up a place for exercise, and a place for youth, and to entitle them, that were at Jerusalem, Antiochians. 10 Which when the king had granted, and he had gotten the rule into his hands, forthwith he began to bring over his countrymen to the fashion of the heathens. 11 And abolishing those things, which had been decreed of special favour by the kings in behalf of the Jews, by the means of John the father of that Eupolemus, who went ambassador to Rome to make amity and alliance, he disannulled the lawful ordinances of the citizens, and brought in fashions that were perverse. 12 For he had the boldness to set up, under the very castle, a place of exercise, and to put all the choicest youths in brothel houses. 13 Now this was not the beginning, but an increase, and progress of heathenish and foreign manners, through the abominable and unheard of wickedness of Jason, that impious wretch and no priest. 14 Insomuch that the priests were not now occupied about the offices of the altar, but despising the temple and neglecting the sacrifices, hastened to be partakers of the games, and of the unlawful allowance thereof, and of the exercise of the discus. 15 And setting nought by the honours of their fathers, they esteemed the Grecian glories for the best: 16 For the sake of which they incurred a dangerous contention, and followed earnestly their ordinances, and in all things they coveted to be like them, who were their enemies and murderers. 17 For acting wickedly against the laws of God doth not pass unpunished: but this the time following will declare. 18 Now when the game that was used every fifth year was kept at Tyre, the king being present, 19 The wicked Jason sent from Jerusalem sinful men to carry three hundred didrachmas of silver for the sacrifice of Hercules; but the bearers thereof desired it might not be bestowed on the sacrifices, because it was not necessary, but might be deputed for other charges. 20 So the money was appointed by him that sent it to the sacrifice of Hercules: but because of them that carried it was employed for the making of galleys. 21 Now when Apollonius the son of Mnestheus was sent into Egypt to treat with the nobles of king Philometor, and Antiochus understood that he was wholly excluded from the affairs of the kingdom, consulting his own interest, he departed thence and came to Joppe, and from thence to Jerusalem: 22 Where he was received in a magnificent manner by Jason, and the city, and came in with torch lights, and with praises, and from thence he returned with his army into Phenicia. 23 Three years afterwards Jason sent Menelaus, brother of the aforesaid Simon, to carry money to the king, and to bring answers from him concerning certain necessary affairs. 24 But he being recommended to the king, when he had magnified the appearance of his power, got the high priesthood for himself, by offering more than Jason by three hundred talents of silver. 25 So having received the king's mandate, he returned bringing nothing worthy of the high priesthood: but having the mind of a cruel tyrant, and the rage of a savage beast. 26 Then Jason, who had undermined his own brother, being himself undermined, was driven out a fugitive into the country of the Ammonites. 27 So Menelaus got the principality: but as for the money he had promised to the king he took no care, when Sostratus the governor of the castle called for it. 28 For to him appertained the gathering of the taxes: wherefore they were both called before the king. 29 And Menelaus was removed from the priesthood, Lysimachus his brother succeeding: and Sostratus was made governor of the Cyprians. 30 When these things were in doing, it fell out that they of Tharsus and Mallos raised a sedition, because they were given for a gift to Antiochis, the king's concubine. 31 The king therefore went in all haste to appease them, leaving Andronicus, one of his nobles, for his deputy. 32 Then Menelaus supposing that he had found a convenient time, having stolen certain vessels of gold out of the temple, gave them to Andronicus, and others he had sold at Tyre, and in the neighbouring cities. 33 Which when Onias understood most certainly, he reproved him, keeping himself in a safe place at Antioch beside Daphne. 34 Whereupon Menelaus coming to Andronicus, desired him to kill Onias. And he went to Onias, and gave him his right hand with an oath, and (though he were suspected by him) persuaded him to come forth out of the sanctuary, and immediately slew him, without any regard to justice. 35 For which cause not only the Jews, but also the other nations, conceived indignation, and were much grieved for the unjust murder of so great a man. 36 And when the king was come back from the places of Cilicia, the Jews that were at Antioch, and also the Greeks went to him: complaining of the unjust murder of Onias. 37 Antiochus therefore was grieved in his mind for Onias, and being moved to pity, shed tears, remembering the sobriety and modesty of the deceased. 38 And being inflamed to anger, he commanded Andronicus to be stripped of his purple, and to be led about through all the city: and that in the same place wherein he had committed the impiety against Onias, the sacrilegious wretch should be put to death, the Lord repaying him his deserved punishment. 39 Now when many sacrileges had been committed by Lysimachus in the temple by the counsel of Menelaus, and the rumour of it was spread abroad, the multitude gathered themselves together against Lysimachus, a great quantity of gold being already carried away. 40 Wherefore the multitude making an insurrection, and their minds being filled with anger, Lysimachus armed about three thousand men, and began to use violence, one Tyrannus being captain, a man far gone both in age, and in madness. 41 But when they perceived the attempt of Lysimachus, some caught up stones, some strong clubs: and some threw ashes upon Lysimachus, 42 And many of them were wounded, and some struck down to the ground, but all were put to flight...