Ohio University Leaf 11
This leaf is from an Italian bible of the 13th century. It measures 19.5 x 13cm and the vellum is thin and supple, with minimal yellowing. It is lined with plummet, and includes blue, red, and black ink. The text is rotunda gothic. Though not illuminated, the leaf includes decorative initials with flourishes, as well as red and blue book numbers and chapter names. The first letter of most verses is pricked out in red. See Denison University Leaf 11 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: Jerome's prologue to Judith; Judith 1:1-2:16 (recto) and 2:16-5:3 (verso). The translation of the prologue is by Ed Gallagher.
Reconstruction Note! In Ege's original manuscript, this leaf was followed by what is now Leaf 11 in the University of Colorado, Boulder portfolio. Together they contain Jerome's prologue and Judith 1:1-10:1.
Ohio University Leaf 11 Recto
idonea iudicatur. Chaldeo tamen sermone conscriptus inter historias conputatur. Sed quia hunc librum sinodus nicena in numero Sanctarum Scripturarum legitur conputasse, adquievi postulationi vestrae, immo exactioni, et sepositis occupationibus quibus vehementer artabar, huic unam lucubratiunculam dedi, magis sensum e sensu quam ex verbo verbum transferens. Multorum codicum varietatem vitiosissiraam amputavi; sola ea quae intellegentia integra in verbis chaldeis invenire potui, latinis expressi. Accipite Iudith viduam, castitatis exemplum, et triumphali laude perpetuis eam praeconiis declarate. Hanc enim non solum feminis, sed et viris imitabilem dedit, qui, castitatis eius remunerator, virtutem talem tribuit, ut invictum omnibus hominibus vinceret, insuperabilem superaret.
Explicit prologus. Incipit liber Iudith.
Arpháxad ítaque, rex Medórum, subjugáverat multas gentes império suo, et ipse ædificávit civitátem potentíssimam, quam appellávit Ecbatánis, ex lapídibus quadrátis et sectis: fecit muros ejus in altitúdinem cubitórum septuagínta, et in latitúdinem cubitórum trigínta: turres vero ejus pósuit in altitúdinem cubitórum centum. Per quadrum vero eárum latus utrúmque vicenórum pedum spátio tendebátur, posuítque portas ejus in altitúdinem túrrium: et gloriabátur quasi potens in poténtia exércitus sui, et in glória quadrigárum suárum. Anno ígitur duodécimo regni sui, Nabuchodonósor rex Assyriórum, qui regnábat in Nínive civitáte magna, pugnávit contra Arpháxad, et obtínuit eum in campo magno qui appellátur Rágau, circa Euphráten, et Tigrin, et Jadáson, in campo Érioch regis Elicórum. Tunc exaltátum est regnum Nabuchodonósor, et cor ejus elevátum est: et misit ad omnes qui habitábant in Cilícia, et Damásco, et Líbano, et ad gentes quæ sunt in Carmélo et Cedar, et inhabitántes Galilaeam in campo magno Ésdrelon, et ad omnes qui erant in Samaría, et trans flumen Jordánem usque ad Jerúsalem, et omnem terram Jesse quoúsque perveniátur ad términos Æthiópiæ. Ad hos omnes misit núntios Nabuchodonósor rex Assyriórum: qui
omnes uno ánimo contradixérunt, et remisérunt eos vácuos, et sine honóre abjecérunt. Tunc indignátus Nabuchodonósor rex advérsus omnem terram illam, jurávit per thronum et regnum suum quod defénderet se de ómnibus regiónibus his. II. Anno tertiodécimo Nabuchodonósor regis, vigésima et secúnda die mensis primi, factum est verbum in domo Nabuchodonósor regis Assyriórum ut defénderet se. Vocavítque omnes majóres natu, omnésque duces et bellatóres suos, et hábuit cum eis mystérium consílii sui: dixítque cogitatiónem suam in eo esse, ut omnem terram suo subjugáret império. Quod dictum cum placuísset ómnibus, vocávit Nabuchodonósor rex Holoférnem príncipem milítiæ suæ, et dixit ei: Egrédere advérsus omne regnum occidéntis, et contra eos præcípue, qui contempsérunt impérium eum. Non parcet óculus tuus ulli regno, omnémque urbem munítam subjugábis mihi. Tunc Holoférnes vocávit duces et magistrátus virtútis Assyriórum, et dinumerávit viros in expeditiónem sicut præcépit ei rex, centum vigínti míllia péditum pugnatórum, et équitum sagittariórum duódecim míllia. Omnémque expeditiónem suam fecit præíre in multitúdine innumerabílium camelórum, cum his quæ exercítibus suffícerent copióse, boum quoque arménta, gregésque óvium, quorum non erat númerus. Fruméntum ex omni Sýria in transítu suo parári constítuit. Aurum vero et argéntum de domo regis assúmpsit multum nimis. Et proféctus est ipse, et omnis exércitus cum quadrígis, et equítibus, et sagittáriis: qui cooperuérunt fáciem terræ sicut locústæ. Cumque pertransísset fines Assyriórum, venit ad magnos montes Ange, qui sunt a sinístro Cilíciæ: ascendítque ómnia castélla eórum, et obtínuit omnem munitiónem. Éffregit autem civitátem opinatíssimam Melóthi, prædavítque omnes fílios Tharsis et fílios Ísmaël qui erant contra fáciem desérti, et ad austrum terræ Cellon. Et transívit Euphráten, et venit in Mesopotámiam: et fregit omnes civitátes excélsas quæ erant ibi, a torrénte Mambre úsquequo perveniátur ad mare: et occupávit términos ejus, a Cilícia usque ad fines Japheth qui sunt ad austrum. Abduxítque omnes fílios Mádian, et prædávit omnem locupletatiónem
[Jerome's prologue to Judith]
...that come into contention. Nevertheless, having been written in Chaldean speech, it is reckoned among the histories. But because the Nicene Synod is read to have reckoned this book in the number of holy Scriptures, I have assented to your request, nay, demand, and having set aside occupations by which I was being violently squeezed, I have given to this one a single night, translating sense for sense rather than word for word. I have eradicated the terrible variety of the many codices; only that which I could find in Chaldean words with complete comprehension did I express in Latin words. Take up the widow Judith, an example of chastity, and with perpetual proclamations acclaim her in triumphal praise. For he has given her as a model not only to women, but also to men, and he, the rewarder of her chastity, has provided such power that she overcame the one not overcome by anyone, and conquered the unconquerable.
Here ends the prologue. Here begins the book of Judith.
1 Now Arphaxad king of the Medes had brought many nations under his dominions, and he built a very strong city, which he called Ecbatana, 2 Of stones squared and hewed: he made the walls thereof seventy cubits broad, and thirty cubits high, and the towers thereof he made a hundred cubits high. But on the square of them, each side was extended the space of twenty feet. 3 And he made the gates thereof according to the height of the towers: 4 And he gloried as a mighty one in the force of his army and in the glory of his chariots. 5 Now in the twelfth year of his reign, Nabuchodonosor king of the Assyrians, who reigned in Ninive the great city, fought against Arphaxad and overcame him, 6 In the great plain which is called Ragua, about the Euphrates, and the Tigris, and the Jadason, in the plain of Erioch the king of the Elicians. 7 Then was the kingdom of Nabuchodonosor exalted, and his heart was elevated: and he sent to all that dwelt in Cilicia and Damascus, and Libanus, 8 And to the nations that are in Carmelus, and Cedar, and to the inhabitants of Galilee in the great plain of Asdrelon, 9 And to all that were in Samaria, and beyond the river Jordan even to Jerusalem, and all the land of Jesse till you come to the borders of Ethiopia. 10 To all these Nabuchodonosor king of the Assyrians, sent messengers: 11 But they all with one mind refused, and sent them back empty, and rejected them without honour. 12 Then king Nabuchodonosor being angry against all that land, swore by his throne and kingdom that he would revenge himself of all those countries.
1 In the thirteenth year of the reign of Nabuchodonosor, the two and twentieth day of the first month, the word was given out in the house of Nabuchodonosor king of the Assyrians, that he would revenge himself. 2 And he called all the ancients, and all the governors, and his officers of war, and communicated to them the secret of his counsel: 3 And he said that his thoughts were to bring all the earth under his empire. 4 And when this saying pleased them all, Nabuchodonosor, the king, called Holofernes the general of his armies, 5 And said to him: Go out against all the kingdoms of the west, and against them especially that despised my commandment. 6 Thy eye shall not spare any kingdom, and all the strong cities thou shalt bring under my yoke. 7 Then Holofernes called the captains, and officers of the power of the Assyrians: and he mustered men for the expedition, as the king commanded him, a hundred and twenty thousand fighting men on foot, and twelve thousand archers, horsemen. 8 And he made all his warlike preparations to go before with a multitude of innumerable camels, with all provisions sufficient for the armies in abundance, and herds of oxen, and flocks of sheep, without number. 9 He appointed corn to be prepared out of all Syria in his passage. 10 But gold and silver he took out of the king's house in great abundance. 11 And he went forth he and all the army, with the chariots, and horsemen, and archers, who covered the face of the earth, like locusts. 12 And when he had passed through the borders of the Assyrians, he came to the great mountains of Ange, which are on the left of Cilicia: and he went up to all their castles, and took all the strong places. 13 And he took by assault the renowned city of Melothus, and pillaged all the children of Tharsis, and the children of Ismahel, who were over against the face of the desert, and on the south of the land of Cellon. 14 And he passed over the Euphrates, and came into Mesopotamia: and he forced all the stately cities that were there, from the torrent of Mambre, till one comes to the sea: 15 And he took the borders thereof, from Cilicia to the coasts of Japheth, which are towards the south. 16 And he carried away all the children of Madian, and stripped them of all their riches...
Ohio University Leaf 11 Verso
eórum, omnésque resisténtes sibi óccidit in ore gládii. Et post hæc descéndit in campos Damásci in diébus messis, et succéndit ómnia sata, omnésque árbores, et víneas fecit íncidi: et cécidit timor illíus super omnes inhabitántes terram. III. Tunc misérunt legátos suos universárum úrbium ac provinciárum reges ac príncipes, Sýriæ scílicet Mesopotámiæ, et Sýriæ Sobal, et Líbyæ, atque Cilíciæ: qui veniéntes ad Holoférnem, dixérunt: Désinat indignátio tua circa nos: mélius est enim ut vivéntes serviámus Nabuchodonósor regi magno, et súbditi simus tibi, quam moriéntes cum intéritu nostro ipsi servitútis nostræ damna patiámur. Omnis cívitas nostra, omnísque posséssio, omnes montes, et colles, et campi, et arménta boum, gregésque óvium, et caprárum, equorúmque et camelórum, et univérsæ facultátes nostræ atque famíliæ, in conspéctu tuo sunt: sint ómnia nostra sub lege tua. Nos, et fílii nostri, servi tui sumus. Veni nobis pacíficus dóminus, et útere servítio nostro, sicut placúerit tibi. Tunc descéndit de móntibus cum equítibus in virtúte magna, et obtínuit omnem civitátem, et omnem inhabitántem terram. De univérsis autem úrbibus assúmpsit sibi auxiliários viros fortes, et eléctos ad bellum. Tantúsque metus provínciis illis incúbuit, ut universárum úrbium habitatóres príncipes et honoráti simul cum pópulis exírent óbviam veniénti, excipiéntes eum cum corónis et lampádibus, ducéntes choros in týmpanis et tíbiis. Nec ista tamen faciéntes, ferocitátem ejus péctoris mitigáre potuérunt: nam et civitátes eórum destrúxit, et lucos eórum excídit. Præcéperat enim illi Nabuchodonósor rex, ut omnes deos terræ extermináret, vidélicet ut ipse solus dicerétur deus ab his natiónibus quæ potuíssent Holoférnis poténtia subjugári. Pertránsiens autem Sýriam Sobal, et omnem Apámeam, omnémque Mesopotámiam, venit ad Idumaeos in terram Gábaa, accepítque civitátes eórum, et sedit ibi per trigínta dies, in quibus diébus adunári præcépit univérsum exércitum virtútis suæ. IIII. Tunc audiéntes hæc fílii Israël qui habitábant in terra Juda, timuérunt valde a fá-
-cie ejus. Tremor et horror invásit sensus eórum, ne hoc fáceret Jerúsalem et templo Dómini, quod fécerat céteris civitátibus et templis eárum. Et misérunt in omnem Samaríam per circúitum usque Jéricho, et præoccupavérunt omnes vértices móntium: et muris circumdedérunt vicos suos, et congregavérunt fruménta in præparatiónem pugnæ. Sacérdos étiam Eliáchim scripsit ad univérsos qui erant contra Ésdrelon, quæ est contra fáciem campi magni juxta Dóthain, et univérsos per quos viæ tránsitus esse póterat, ut obtinérent ascénsus móntium, per quos via esse póterat ad Jerúsalem, et illic custodírent ubi angústum iter esse póterat inter montes. Et fecérunt fílii Israël secúndum quod constitúerat eis sacérdos Dómini Eliáchim. Et clamávit omnis pópulus ad Dóminum instántia magna, et humiliavérunt ánimas suas in jejúniis et oratiónibus, ipsi et mulíeres eórum. Et induérunt se sacerdótes cilíciis, et infántes prostravérunt contra fáciem templi Dómini, et altáre Dómini operuérunt cilício: et clamavérunt ad Dóminum Deum Israël unanímiter ne daréntur in prædam infántes eórum, et uxóres eórum in divisiónem, et civitátes eórum in extermínium, et sancta eórum in pollutiónem, et fíerent oppróbrium géntibus. Tunc Eliáchim sacérdos Dómini magnus circuívit omnem Israël, allocutúsque est eos, dicens: Scitóte quóniam exáudiet Dóminus preces vestras, si manéntes permanséritis in jejúniis et oratiónibus in conspéctu Dómini. Mémores estóte Móysi servi Dómini, qui Ámalec confidéntem in virtúte sua, et in poténtia sua, et in exércitu suo, et in clýpeis suis, et in cúrribus suis, et in equítibus suis, non ferro pugnándo, sed précibus sanctis orándo dejécit: sic erunt univérsi hostes Israël, si perseveravéritis in hoc ópere quod cœpístis. Ad hanc ígitur exhortatiónem ejus deprecántes Dóminum, permanébant in conspéctu Dómini, ita ut étiam hi qui offerébant Dómino holocáusta, præcíncti cilíciis offérrent sacrifícia Dómino, et erat cinis super cápita eórum. Et ex toto corde suo omnes orábant Deum, ut visitáret pópulum suum Israël. V. Nuntiatúmque est Holoférni príncipi milítiæ Assyriórum, quod fílii Israël præparárent se ad resisténdum, ac móntium itínera conclusíssent: et furóre nímio exársit in iracúndia magna, vocavítque omnes príncipes Moab et duces Ammon, et dixit eis:
...and all that resisted him he slew with the edge of the sword. 17 And after these things he went down into the plains of Damascus in the days of the harvest, and he set all the corn on fire, and he caused all the trees and vineyards to be cut down. 18 And the fear of them fell upon all the inhabitants of the land.
1 Then the kings and the princes of all the cities and provinces, of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Syria Sobal, and Libya, and Cilicia sent their ambassadors, who coming to Holofernes, said: 2 Let thy indignation towards us cease: for it is better for us to live and serve Nabuchodonosor the great king, and be subject to thee, than to die and to perish, or suffer the miseries of slavery. 3 All our cities and our possessions, all mountains and hills, and fields, and herds of oxen, and flocks of sheep, and goats, and horses, and camels, and all our goods, and families are in thy sight: 4 Let all we have be subject to thy law. 5 Both we and our children are thy servants. 6 Come to us a peaceable lord, and use our service as it shall please thee. 7 Then he came down from the mountains with horsemen, in great power, and made himself master of every city, and all the inhabitants of the land. 8 And from all the cities he took auxiliaries valiant men, and chosen for war. 9 And so great a fear lay upon all those provinces, that the inhabitants of all the cities, both princes and nobles, as well as the people, went out to meet him at his coming. 10 And received him with garlands, and lights, and dances, and timbrels, and flutes. 11 And though they did these things, they could not for all that mitigate the fierceness of his heart: 12 For he both destroyed their cities and cut down their groves. 13 For Nabuchodonosor the king had commanded him to destroy all the gods of the earth, that he only might be called God by those nations which could be brought under him by the power of Holofernes. 14 And when he had passed through all Syria Sobal, and all Apamea, and all Mesopotamia, he came to the Idumeans into the land of Gabaa, 15 And he took possession of their cities, and stayed there for thirty days, in which days he commanded all the troops of his army to be united.
1 Then the children of Israel, who dwelt in the land of Juda, hearing these things, were exceedingly afraid of him. 2 Dread and horror seized upon their minds, lest he should do the same to Jerusalem and to the temple of the Lord, that he had done to other cities and their temples. 3 And they sent into all Samaria round about, as far as Jericho, and seized upon all the tops of the mountains: 4 And they compassed their towns with walls, and gathered together corn for provision for war. 5 And Eliachim the priest wrote to all that were over against Esdrelon, which faceth the great plain near Dothain, and to all by whom there might be a passage of way, 6 that they should take possession of the ascents of the mountains, by which there might be any way to Jerusalem, and should keep watch where the way was narrow between the mountains. 7 And the children of Israel did as the priest of the Lord Eliachim had appointed them, 8 And all the people cried to the Lord with great earnestness, and they humbled their souls in fastings, and prayers, both they and their wives. 9 And the priests put on haircloths, and they caused the little children to lie prostrate before the temple of the Lord, and the altar of the Lord they covered with haircloth. 10 And they cried to the Lord the God of Israel with one accord, that their children might not be made a prey, and their wives carried off, and their cities destroyed, and their holy things profaned, and that they might not be made a reproach to the Gentiles. 11 Then Eliachim the high priest of the Lord went about all Israel and spoke to them, 12 Saying: Know ye that the Lord will hear your prayers, if you continue with perseverance in fastings and prayers in the sight of the Lord. 13 Remember Moses the servant of the Lord, who overcame Amalec that trusted in his own strength, and in his power, and in his army, and in his shields, and in his chariots, and in his horsemen, not by fighting with the sword, but by holy prayers: 14 So shall all the enemies of Israel be, if you persevere in this work which you have begun. 15 So they being moved by this exhortation of his, prayed to the Lord, and continued in the sight of the Lord. 16 So that even they who offered the holocausts to the Lord, offered the sacrifices to the Lord girded with haircloths, and with ashes upon their head. 17 And they all begged of God with all their heart, that he would visit his people Israel.
1 And it was told Holofernes the general of the army of the Assyrians, that the children of Israel prepared themselves to resist, and had shut up the ways of the mountains. 2 And he was transported with exceeding great fury and indignation, and he called all the princes of Moab and the leaders of Ammon. 3 And he said to them...