Ohio University Leaf 09
This leaf measures 17 x 12.5cm and comes from a French (Parisian) Bible of the mid-thirteenth century. The vellum is very white, thin, and soft, with vertical lead lines and horizontal dry-point lines. The script is angular gothic minuscule, in brown (main text) and red and blue (decoration and heading) ink, which is significantly faded in several places. The initials are complete with long flourishes. See Denison University Leaf 09 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: The 5th-century Old Latin Monarchian Prologue to Luke, and Luke 1:1-1:41 (recto); Luke 1:41-2:24 (verso). Translation of the prologue is from textexcavation.org.
Ohio University Leaf 09 Recto
-tismum filii dei a perfectione generationis in Christo impletae et repetendae a principio nativitatis humanae potestas permissa est, ut requirentibus demonstraret, in quo adprehendens erat, per Nathan filium introitu recurrentis in deum generationis admisso, indispartibilis deus praedicans in hominibus Christum suum perfecti opus hominis redire in se per filium faceret, qui per David patrem venientibus iter praebebat in Christo. Cui Lucae non inmerito etiam scribendorum apostolicorum actuum potestas in ministerio datur, ut deo in deum pleno ac filio proditionis extincto, oratione ab apostolis facta, sorte domini electionis numerus compleretur, sicque Paulus consummationem apostolicis actibus daret, quem diu contra stimulos recalcitrantem dominus elegisset. quod legentibus ac requirentibus deum etsi per singula expediri a nobis utile fuerat, scientes tamen quod operantem agricolam oporteat de fructibus suis edere, vitavimus publicam curiositatem, ne non tam demonstrare volentibus deum videremur quam fastidientibus prodidisse.
It. ali. prologus.
Quóniam quidem multi conáti sunt ordináre narratiónem, quæ in nobis complétæ sunt, rerum: sicut tradidérunt nobis, qui ab inítio ipsi vidérunt, et minístri fuérunt sermónis: visum est et mihi, assecúto ómnia a princípio diligénter, ex órdine tibi scríbere, óptime Theóphile, ut cognóscas eórum verbórum, de quibus erudítus es, veritátem.
Explicit prologus. Incipit ev. Luce.
Fuit in diébus Heródis, regis Judaeæ, sacérdos quidam nómine Zacharías de vice Abía, et uxor illíus de filiábus Áaron, et nomen ejus Elísabeth. Erant autem justi ambo ante Deum, incedéntes in ómnibus mandátis et justificatiónibus Dómini sine queréla. Et non erat illis fílius, eo quod esset Elísabeth stérilis, et ambo processíssent in diébus suis. Factum est autem, cum sacerdótio fungerétur in órdine vicis suæ ante Deum, secúndum consuetúdinem sacerdótii, sorte éxiit ut incénsum póneret, ingréssus in templum Dómini: et omnis multitúdo pópuli erat orans foris hora incénsi. Appáruit autem illi ángelus Dómini, stans a dextris altáris incénsi. Et Zacharías turbátus est videns, et timor írruit super eum. Ait autem ad illum ángelus: Ne tímeas, Zacharía, quóniam exaudíta est deprecátio tua: et uxor tua Elísabeth páriet tibi fílium, et vocábis nomen ejus Joánnem: et erit gáudium tibi, et exsultátio, et multi in nativitáte ejus gaudébunt: erit enim magnus coram Dómino: et vinum et síceram non bibet, et Spíritu
Sancto replébitur adhuc ex útero matris suæ: et multos filiórum Israël convértet ad Dóminum Deum ipsórum: et ipse præcédet ante illum in spíritu et virtúte Elíæ: ut convértat corda patrum in fílios, et incrédulos ad prudéntiam justórum, paráre Dómino plebem perféctam. Et dixit Zacharías ad ángelum: Unde hoc sciam? ego enim sum senex, et uxor mea procéssit in diébus suis. Et respóndens ángelus dixit ei: Ego sum Gábriel, qui asto ante Deum: et missus sum loqui ad te, et hæc tibi evangelizáre. Et ecce eris tacens, et non póteris loqui usque in diem quo hæc fiant, pro eo quod non credidísti verbis meis, quæ implebúntur in témpore suo. Et erat plebs exspéctans Zacharíam: et mirabántur quod tardáret ipse in templo. Egréssus autem non póterat loqui ad illos, et cognovérunt quod visiónem vidísset in templo. Et ipse erat ínnuens illis, et permánsit mutus. Et factum est, ut impléti sunt dies offícii ejus, ábiit in domum suam: post hos autem dies concépit Elísabeth uxor ejus, et occultábat se ménsibus quinque, dicens: Quia sic fecit mihi Dóminus in diébus, quibus respéxit auférre oppróbrium meum inter hómines. In mense autem sexto, missus est ángelus Gábriel a Deo in civitátem Galilaeæ, cui nomen Názareth, ad vírginem desponsátam viro, cui nomen erat Joseph, de domo David: et nomen vírginis María. Et ingréssus ángelus ad eam dixit: Ave grátia plena: Dóminus tecum: benedícta tu in muliéribus. Quæ cum audísset, turbáta est in sermóne ejus, et cogitábat qualis esset ista salutátio. Et ait ángelus ei: Ne tímeas, María: invenísti enim grátiam apud Deum. Ecce concípies in útero, et páries fílium, et vocábis nomen ejus Jesum: hic erit magnus, et Fílius Altíssimi vocábitur, et dabit illi Dóminus Deus sedem David patris ejus: et regnábit in domo Jacob in ætérnum, et regni ejus non erit finis. Dixit autem María ad ángelum: Quómodo fiet istud, quóniam virum non cognósco? Et respóndens ángelus dixit ei: Spíritus Sanctus supervéniet in te, et virtus Altíssimi obumbrábit tibi. Ideóque et quod nascétur ex te sanctum, vocábitur Fílius Dei. Et ecce Elísabeth cognáta tua, et ipsa concépit fílium in senectúte sua: et hic mensis sextus est illi, quæ vocátur stérilis: quia non erit impossíbile apud Deum omne verbum. Dixit autem María: Ecce ancílla Dómini: fiat mihi secúndum verbum tuum. Et discéssit ab illa ángelus. Exsúrgens autem María in diébus illis, ábiit in montána cum festinatióne, in civitátem Juda: et intrávit in domum Zacharíæ, et salutávit Elísabeth. Et factum est, ut audívit salutatiónem Maríæ Elísabeth, exsultávit infans in útero ejus: et repléta est Spíritu Sancto Elísa-
[From the Old Latin Monarchian Prologue to Luke:]
...the baptism of the son of God, from the perfection of the generation fulfilled and to be repeated in Christ, from the beginning of his human nativity, so that he might demonstrate to those who thoroughly seek, insofar as he had apprehended it, that, by the admitted introduction of a generation which runs back through a son of Nathan to God, the indivisible God who preaches his Christ among men made the work of the perfect man return into himself through the son, he who through David the father was preparing a way in Christ for those who were coming. To this not immeritorious Luke was given the power in his ministry of writing also the acts of the apostles so that, when God had been filled up in God and the son of treachery extinguished, and prayers made by the apostles, the number of election might be completed by the lot of the Lord, and that thus Paul, whom the Lord elected despite long kicking against the pricks, might give a consummation to the acts of the apostles. Though it were also useful for those reading and thoroughly seeking God that this be explained by us in the details, nevertheless, knowing that it is fit for the working farmer to eat from his own fruits, we have avoided public curiosity, lest we should be seen as, not so much demonstrating God to those who are willing, but rather having given it to those who loathe him.
1 Forasmuch as many have taken in hand to set forth in order a narration of the things that have been accomplished among us; 2 According as they have delivered them unto us, who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word: 3 It seemed good to me also, having diligently attained to all things from the beginning, to write to thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, 4 That thou mayest know the verity of those words in which thou hast been instructed. 5 There was in the days of Herod, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zachary, of the course of Abia; and his wife was of the daughters of Aaron, and her name Elizabeth. 6 And they were both just before God, walking in all the commandments and justifications of the Lord without blame. 7 And they had no son, for that Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well advanced in years. 8 And it came to pass, when he executed the priestly function in the order of his course before God, 9 According to the custom of the priestly office, it was his lot to offer incense, going into the temple of the Lord. 10 And all the multitude of the people was praying without, at the hour of incense. 11 And there appeared to him an angel of the Lord, standing on the right side of the alter of incense. 12 And Zachary seeing him, was troubled, and fear fell upon him. 13 But the angel said to him: Fear not, Zachary, for thy prayer is heard; and thy wife Elizabeth shall bear thee a son, and thou shalt call his name John: 14 And thou shalt have joy and gladness, and many shall rejoice in his nativity. 15 For he shall be great before the Lord; and shall drink no wine nor strong drink: and he shall be filled with the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's womb. 16 And he shall convert many of the children of Israel to the Lord their God. 17 And he shall go before him in the spirit and power of Elias; that he may turn the hearts of the fathers unto the children, and the incredulous to the wisdom of the just, to prepare unto the Lord a perfect people. 18 And Zachary said to the angel: Whereby shall I know this? for I am an old man, and my wife is advanced in years. 19 And the angel answering, said to him: I am Gabriel, who stand before God: and am sent to speak to thee, and to bring thee these good tidings. 20 And behold, thou shalt be dumb, and shalt not be able to speak until the day wherein these things shall come to pass, because thou hast not believed my words, which shall be fulfilled in their time. 21 And the people were waiting for Zachary; and they wondered that he tarried so long in the temple. 22 And when he came out, he could not speak to them: and they understood that he had seen a vision in the temple. And he made signs to them, and remained dumb. 23 And it came to pass, after the days of his office were accomplished, he departed to his own house. 24 And after those days, Elizabeth his wife conceived, and hid herself five months, saying: 25 Thus hath the Lord dealt with me in the days wherein he hath had regard to take away my reproach among men. 26 And in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God into a city of Galilee, called Nazareth, 27 To a virgin espoused to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David; and the virgin's name was Mary. 28 And the angel being come in, said unto her: Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with thee: blessed art thou among women. 29 Who having heard, was troubled at his saying, and thought with herself what manner of salutation this should be. 30 And the angel said to her: Fear not, Mary, for thou hast found grace with God. 31 Behold thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring forth a son; and thou shalt call his name Jesus. 32 He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the most High; and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of David his father; and he shall reign in the house of Jacob for ever. 33 And of his kingdom there shall be no end. 34 And Mary said to the angel: How shall this be done, because I know not man? 35 And the angel answering, said to her: The Holy Ghost shall come upon thee, and the power of the most High shall overshadow thee. And therefore also the Holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God. 36 And behold thy cousin Elizabeth, she also hath conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her that is called barren: 37 Because no word shall be impossible with God. 38 And Mary said: Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it done to me according to thy word. And the angel departed from her. 39 And Mary rising up in those days, went into the hill country with haste into a city of Juda. 40 And she entered into the house of Zachary, and saluted Elizabeth. 41 And it came to pass, that when Elizabeth heard the salutation of Mary, the infant leaped in her womb. And Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Ghost...
Ohio University Leaf 09 Verso
-beth, et exclamávit voce magna, et dixit: Benedícta tu inter mulíeres, et benedíctus fructus ventris tui. Et unde hoc mihi, ut véniat mater Dómini mei ad me? Ecce enim ut facta est vox salutatiónis tuæ in áuribus meis, exsultávit in gáudio infans in útero meo. Et beáta, quæ credidísti, quóniam perficiéntur ea, quæ dicta sunt tibi a Dómino. Et ait María: Magníficat ánima mea Dóminum: et exsultávit spíritus meus in Deo salutári meo. Quia respéxit humilitátem ancíllæ suæ: ecce enim ex hoc beátam me dicent omnes generatiónes, quia fecit mihi magna qui potens est: et sanctum nomen ejus, et misericórdia ejus a progénie in progénies timéntibus eum. Fecit poténtiam in bráchio suo: dispérsit supérbos mente cordis sui. Depósuit poténtes de sede, et exaltávit húmiles. Esuriéntes implévit bonis: et dívites dimísit inánes. Suscépit Israël púerum suum, recordátus misericórdiæ suæ: sicut locútus est ad patres nostros, Ábraham et sémini ejus in saecula. Mansit autem María cum illa quasi ménsibus tribus: et revérsa est in domum suam. Elísabeth autem implétum est tempus pariéndi, et péperit fílium. Et audiérunt vicíni et cognáti ejus quia magnificávit Dóminus misericórdiam suam cum illa, et congratulabántur ei. Et factum est in die octávo, venérunt circumcídere púerum, et vocábant eum nómine patris sui Zacharíam. Et respóndens mater ejus, dixit: Nequáquam, sed vocábitur Joánnes. Et dixérunt ad illam: Quia nemo est in cognatióne tua, qui vocétur hoc nómine. Innuébant autem patri ejus, quem vellet vocári eum. Et póstulans pugillárem scripsit, dicens: Joánnes est nomen ejus. Et miráti sunt univérsi. Apértum est autem íllico os ejus, et lingua ejus, et loquebátur benedícens Deum. Et factus est timor super omnes vicínos eórum: et super ómnia montána Judaeæ divulgabántur ómnia verba hæc: et posuérunt omnes qui audíerant in corde suo, dicéntes: Quis, putas, puer iste erit? étenim manus Dómini erat cum illo. Et Zacharías pater ejus replétus est Spíritu Sancto: et prophetávit, dicens: Benedíctus Dóminus Deus Israël, quia visitávit, et fecit redemptiónem plebis suæ: et eréxit cornu salútis nobis in domo David púeri sui, sicut locútum est per os sanctórum, qui a saeculo sunt, prophetárum ejus: salútem ex inimícis nostris, et de manu ómnium qui odérunt nos: ad faciéndam misericórdiam cum pátribus nostris: et memorári testaménti sui sancti: jusjurándum, quod jurávit ad Ábraham patrem nostrum, datúrum se nobis ut sine timóre, de manu inimicórum nostrórum liberáti, serviámus illi in sanctitáte et justítia coram ipso, ómnibus diébus nostris. Et tu puer, prophéta Altíssimi vocáberis: præíbis enim ante fáciem Dómini paráre vias ejus, ad dandam sciéntiam salútis plebi
ejus in remissiónem peccatórum eórum per víscera misericórdiæ Dei nostri, in quibus visitávit nos, óriens ex alto: illumináre his qui in ténebris et in umbra mortis sedent: ad dirigéndos pedes nostros in viam pacis. Puer autem crescébat, et confortabátur spíritu: et erat in desértis usque in diem ostensiónis suæ ad Israël. II. Factum est autem in diébus illis, éxiit edíctum a Cæsáre Augústo ut describerétur univérsus orbis. Hæc descríptio prima facta est a praeside Sýriæ Cyríno: et ibant omnes ut profiteréntur sínguli in suam civitátem. Ascéndit autem et Joseph a Galilaea de civitáte Názareth in Judaeam, in civitátem David, quæ vocátur Béthlehem: eo quod esset de domo et família David, ut profiterétur cum María desponsáta sibi uxóre prægnánte. Factum est autem, cum essent ibi, impléti sunt dies ut páreret. Et péperit fílium suum primogénitum, et pannis eum invólvit, et reclinávit eum in præsépio: quia non erat eis locus in diversório. Et pastóres erant in regióne eádem vigilántes, et custodiéntes vigílias noctis super gregem suum. Et ecce ángelus Dómini stetit juxta illos, et cláritas Dei circumfúlsit illos, et timuérunt timóre magno. Et dixit illis ángelus: Nolíte timére: ecce enim evangelízo vobis gáudium magnum, quod erit omni pópulo: quia natus est vobis hódie Salvátor, qui est Christus Dóminus, in civitáte David. Et hoc vobis signum: inveniétis infántem pannis involútum, et pósitum in præsépio. Et súbito facta est cum ángelo multitúdo milítiæ cæléstis laudántium Deum, et dicéntium: Glória in altíssimis Deo, et in terra pax homínibus bonæ voluntátis. Et factum est, ut discessérunt ab eis ángeli in cælum: pastóres loquebántur ad ínvicem: transeámus usque Béthlehem, et videámus hoc verbum, quod factum est, quod Dóminus osténdit nobis. Et venérunt festinántes: et invenérunt Maríam, et Joseph, et infántem pósitum in præsépio. Vidéntes autem cognovérunt de verbo, quod dictum erat illis de púero hoc. Et omnes qui audiérunt, miráti sunt: et de his quæ dicta erant a pastóribus ad ipsos. María autem conservábat ómnia verba hæc, cónferens in corde suo. Et revérsi sunt pastóres glorificántes et laudántes Deum in ómnibus quæ audíerant et víderant, sicut dictum est ad illos. Et postquam consummáti sunt dies octo, ut circumciderétur puer, vocátum est nomen ejus Jesus, quod vocátum est ab ángelo priúsquam in útero conciperétur. Et postquam impléti sunt dies purgatiónis ejus secúndum legem Móysi, tulérunt illum in Jerúsalem, ut sísterent eum Dómino, sicut scriptum est in lege Dómini: Quia omne masculínum adapériens vulvam, sanctum Dómino vocábitur: et ut darent hóstiam secúndum quod dictum est in lege Dómini, par túrturum, aut duos
42 And she cried out with a loud voice, and said: Blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb. 43 And whence is this to me, that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 44 For behold as soon as the voice of thy salutation sounded in my ears, the infant in my womb leaped for joy. 45 And blessed art thou that hast believed, because those things shall be accomplished that were spoken to thee by the Lord. 46 And Mary said: My soul doth magnify the Lord. 47 And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. 48 Because he hath regarded the humility of his handmaid; for behold from henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. 49 Because he that is mighty, hath done great things to me; and holy is his name. 50 And his mercy is from generation unto generations, to them that fear him. 51 He hath shewed might in his arm: he hath scattered the proud in the conceit of their heart. 52 He hath put down the mighty from their seat, and hath exalted the humble. 53 He hath filled the hungry with good things; and the rich he hath sent empty away. 54 He hath received Israel his servant, being mindful of his mercy: 55 As he spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and to his seed for ever. 56 And Mary abode with her about three months; and she returned to her own house. 57 Now Elizabeth's full time of being delivered was come, and she brought forth a son. 58 And her neighbours and kinsfolks heard that the Lord had shewed his great mercy towards her, and they congratulated with her. 59 And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child, and they called him by his father's name Zachary. 60 And his mother answering, said: Not so; but he shall be called John. 61 And they said to her: There is none of thy kindred that is called by this name. 62 And they made signs to his father, how he would have him called. 63 And demanding a writing table, he wrote, saying: John is his name. And they all wondered. 64 And immediately his mouth was opened, and his tongue loosed, and he spoke, blessing God. 65 And fear came upon all their neighbours; and all these things were noised abroad over all the hill country of Judea. 66 And all they that had heard them laid them up in their heart, saying: What an one, think ye, shall this child be? For the hand of the Lord was with him. 67 And Zachary his father was filled with the Holy Ghost; and he prophesied, saying: 68 Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; because he hath visited and wrought the redemption of his people: 69 And hath raised up an horn of salvation to us, in the house of David his servant: 70 As he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets, who are from the beginning: 71 Salvation from our enemies, and from the hand of all that hate us: 72 To perform mercy to our fathers, and to remember his holy testament, 73 The oath, which he swore to Abraham our father, that he would grant to us, 74 That being delivered from the hand of our enemies, we may serve him without fear, 75 In holiness and justice before him, all our days. 76 And thou, child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest: for thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare his ways: 77 To give knowledge of salvation to his people, unto the remission of their sins: 78 Through the bowels of the mercy of our God, in which the Orient from on high hath visited us: 79 To enlighten them that sit in darkness, and in the shadow of death: to direct our feet into the way of peace. 80 And the child grew, and was strengthened in spirit; and was in the deserts until the day of his manifestation to Israel.
1 And it came to pass, that in those days there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that the whole world should be enrolled. 2 This enrolling was first made by Cyrinus, the governor of Syria. 3 And all went to be enrolled, every one into his own city. 4 And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem: because he was of the house and family of David, 5 To be enrolled with Mary his espoused wife, who was with child. 6 And it came to pass, that when they were there, her days were accomplished, that she should be delivered. 7 And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him up in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. 8 And there were in the same country shepherds watching, and keeping the night watches over their flock. 9 And behold an angel of the Lord stood by them, and the brightness of God shone round about them; and they feared with a great fear. 10 And the angel said to them: Fear not; for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, that shall be to all the people: 11 For, this day, is born to you a Saviour, who is Christ the Lord, in the city of David. 12 And this shall be a sign unto you. You shall find the infant wrapped in swaddling clothes, and laid in a manger. 13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army, praising God, and saying: 14 Glory to God in the highest; and on earth peace to men of good will. 15 And it came to pass, after the angels departed from them into heaven, the shepherds said one to another: Let us go over to Bethlehem, and let us see this word that is come to pass, which the Lord hath shewed to us. 16 And they came with haste; and they found Mary and Joseph, and the infant lying in the manger. 17 And seeing, they understood of the word that had been spoken to them concerning this child. 18 And all that heard, wondered; and at those things that were told them by the shepherds. 19 But Mary kept all these words, pondering them in her heart. 20 And the shepherds returned, glorifying and praising God, for all the things they had heard and seen, as it was told unto them. 21 And after eight days were accomplished, that the child should be circumcised, his name was called JESUS, which was called by the angel, before he was conceived in the womb. 22 And after the days of her purification, according to the law of Moses, were accomplished, they carried him to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord: 23 As it is written in the law of the Lord: Every male opening the womb shall be called holy to the Lord: 24 And to offer a sacrifice, according as it is written in the law of the Lord, a pair of turtledoves...