Ohio State University Leaf 06
This leaf comes from an English Cambridge Bible, St. Jerome's edition, from the early thirteenth century. The script is early angular gothic. The 27.5 x 20cm vellum is thin and soft with ink lining, obvious binding holes, and minimal yellowing. The script is described as early angular gothic by Ege. The ink used for the body of the text is brown, with decoration in the form of book name and chapter numbers red and blue with some minor squiggle emphasis, not unlike that found in Leaf 04. See Denison Leaf 06 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: 2 Maccabees 4:32-5:23 (recto) and 5:23-7:2 (verso).
Ohio State University Leaf 06 Recto
tempus opportúnum, áurea quædam vasa e templo furátus donávit Andrónico, et ália vendíderat Tyri, et per vicínas civitátes. Quod cum certíssime cognovísset Ónias, arguébat eum, ipse in loco tuto se cóntinens Antiochíæ secus Daphnem. Unde Menélaus accédens ad Andrónicum, rogábat ut Óniam interfíceret. Qui cum venísset ad Óniam, et datis dextris cum jurejurándo (quámvis esset ei suspéctus) suasísset de ásylo procédere, statim eum perémit, non véritus justítiam. Ob quam causam non solum Judaei, sed áliæ quoque natiónes indignabántur, et moléste ferébant de nece tanti viri injústa. Sed regréssum regem de Cilíciæ locis adiérunt Judaei apud Antiochíam, simul et Græci, conqueréntes de iníqua nece Óniæ. Contristátus ítaque ánimo Antíochus propter Óniam, et flexus ad misericórdiam, lácrimas fudit, recordátus defúncti sobrietátem et modéstiam: accensísque ánimis Andrónicum púrpura exútum, per totam civitátem jubet circumdúci: et in eódem loco in quo in Óniam impietátem commíserat, sacrílegum vita privári, Dómino illi condígnam retribuénte pœnam. Multis autem sacrilégiis in templo a Lysimácho commíssis Menélai consílio, et divulgáta fama, congregáta est multitúdo advérsum Lysimáchum multo jam auro exportáto. Turbis autem insurgéntibus, et ánimis ira replétis, Lysimáchus armátis fere tribus míllibus iníquis mánibus uti cœpit, duce quodam tyránno, ætáte páriter et deméntia provécto. Sed ut intellexérunt conátum Lysimáchi, álii lápides, álii fustes válidos arripúere: quidam vero cínerem in Lysimáchum jécere. Et multi quidem vulneráti, quidam autem et prostráti, omnes vero in fugam convérsi sunt: ipsum étiam sacrílegum secus ærárium interfecérunt. De his ergo cœpit judícium advérsus Menélaum agitári. Et cum venísset rex Tyrum, ad ipsum negótium detulérunt missi tres viri a senióribus. Et cum superarétur Menélaus, promísit Ptolemaeo multas pecúnias dare ad suadéndum regi. Ítaque Ptolemaeus in quodam átrio pósitum quasi refrigerándi grátia regem ádiit, et dedúxit a senténtia: et Menélaum quidem univérsæ malítiæ reum crimínibus absólvit: míseros autem qui, etiámsi apud Scythas causam dixíssent, innocéntes judicaréntur, hos morte damnávit. Cito ergo injústam pœnam dedérunt, qui pro civitáte, et pópulo, et sacris vasis causam prosecúti sunt. Quam ob rem Týrii quoque indignáti, erga sepultúram eórum liberalíssimi extitérunt. Menélaus autem, propter eórum qui in poténtia erant avarítiam, permanébat in potestáte, crescens in malítia ad insídias cívium. V. Eódem témpore, Antíochus secúndam profectiónem parávit in Ægýptum. Cóntigit autem per univérsam Jerosolymórum civitátem víderi diébus quadragínta per áëra équites discurréntes, aurátas stolas habéntes et hastis, quasi cohórtes armátos: et cursus equórum per órdines digéstos, et congressiónes fíeri cóminus, et scutórum motus,
et galeatórum multitúdinem gládiis distríctis, et telórum jactus, et aureórum armórum splendórem, omnísque géneris loricárum. Quaprópter omnes rogábant in bonum monstra convérti. Sed cum falsus rumor exísset, tamquam vita excessísset Antíochus, assúmptis Jason non minus mille viris, repénte agréssus est civitátem: et cívibus ad murum convolántibus ad últimum apprehénsa civitáte, Menélaus fugit in arcem: Jason vero non parcébat in cæde cívibus suis, nec cogitábat prosperitátem advérsum cognátos malum esse máximum, árbitrans hóstium et non cívium se trophaea captúrum. Et principátum quidem non obtínuit, finem vero insidiárum suárum confusiónem accépit, et profúgus íterum ábiit in Ammánitem. Ad últimum, in exítium sui conclúsus ab Aréta Árabum tyránno fúgiens de civitáte in civitátem, ómnibus odiósus, ut réfuga legum et execrábilis, ut pátriæ et cívium hostis, in Ægýptum extrúsus est: et qui multos de pátria sua expúlerat, péregre périit, Lacedæmónas proféctus, quasi pro cognatióne ibi refúgium habitúrus: et qui insepúltos multos abjécerat, ipse et illamentátus et insepúltus abjícitur, sepultúra neque peregrína usus, neque pátrio sepúlchro partícipans. His ítaque gestis, suspicátus est rex societátem desertúros Judaeos: et ob hoc proféctus ex Ægýpto efferátis ánimis, civitátem quidem armis cepit. Jussit autem milítibus interfícere, nec párcere occursántibus, et per domos ascendéntes trucidáre. Fiébant ergo cædes júvenum ac seniórum, et mulíerum et natórum extermínia, virginúmque et parvulórum neces. Erant autem toto tríduo octogínta míllia interfécti, quadragínta míllia vincti, non minus autem venundáti. Sed nec ista suffíciunt: ausus est étiam intráre templum univérsa terra sánctius, Menélao ductóre, qui legum et pátriæ fuit próditor: et sceléstis mánibus sumens sancta vasa, quæ ab áliis régibus et civitátibus erant pósita ad ornátum loci, et glóriam, contrectábat indígne, et contaminábat. Ita alienátus mente Antíochus, non considerábat quod propter peccáta habitántium civitátem, módicum Deus fúerat irátus: propter quod et áccidit circa locum despéctio: alióquin nisi contigísset eos multis peccátis esse involútos, sicut Heliodórus, qui missus est a Seleúco rege ad expoliándum ærárium, étiam hic statim advéniens flagellátus, et repúlsus útique fuísset ab audácia. Verum non propter locum, gentem: sed propter gentem, locum Deus elégit. Ideóque et ipse locus párticeps factus est pópuli malórum: póstea autem fiet sócius bonórum, et qui derelíctus in ira Dei omnipoténtis est, íterum in magni Dómini reconciliatióne cum summa glória exaltábitur. Ígitur Antíochus mille et octingéntis ablátis de templo taléntis, velóciter Antiochíam regréssus est, exístimans se præ supérbia terram ad navigándum, pélagus vero ad iter agéndum deductúrum propter mentis elatiónem. Relíquit autem et præpósitos ad affligéndam gentem: Jerosólymis quidem Philíppum génere Phrygem, móribus crudeliórem eo ipso a quo constitútus est: in Garízim autem Andrónicum et Menélaum,
[2 Maccabees 4:32-5:23]
...having stolen certain vessels of gold out of the temple, gave them to Andronicus, and others he had sold at Tyre, and in the neighbouring cities. 33 Which when Onias understood most certainly, he reproved him, keeping himself in a safe place at Antioch beside Daphne. 34 Whereupon Menelaus coming to Andronicus, desired him to kill Onias. And he went to Onias, and gave him his right hand with an oath, and (though he were suspected by him) persuaded him to come forth out of the sanctuary, and immediately slew him, without any regard to justice. 35 For which cause not only the Jews, but also the other nations, conceived indignation, and were much grieved for the unjust murder of so great a man. 36 And when the king was come back from the places of Cilicia, the Jews that were at Antioch, and also the Greeks went to him: complaining of the unjust murder of Onias. 37 Antiochus therefore was grieved in his mind for Onias, and being moved to pity, shed tears, remembering the sobriety and modesty of the deceased. 38 And being inflamed to anger, he commanded Andronicus to be stripped of his purple, and to be led about through all the city: and that in the same place wherein he had committed the impiety against Onias, the sacrilegious wretch should be put to death, the Lord repaying him his deserved punishment. 39 Now when many sacrileges had been committed by Lysimachus in the temple by the counsel of Menelaus, and the rumour of it was spread abroad, the multitude gathered themselves together against Lysimachus, a great quantity of gold being already carried away. 40 Wherefore the multitude making an insurrection, and their minds being filled with anger, Lysimachus armed about three thousand men, and began to use violence, one Tyrannus being captain, a man far gone both in age, and in madness. 41 But when they perceived the attempt of Lysimachus, some caught up stones, some strong clubs: and some threw ashes upon Lysimachus, 42 And many of them were wounded, and some struck down to the ground, but all were put to flight: and as for the sacrilegious fellow himself, they slew him beside the treasury. 43 Now concerning these matters, an accusation was laid against Menelaus. 44 And when the king was come to Tyre, three men were sent from the ancients to plead the cause before him. 45 But Menelaus being convicted, promised Ptolemee to give him much money to persuade the king to favour him. 46 So Ptolemee went to the king in a certain court where he was, as it were to cool himself, and brought him to be of another mind: 47 So Menelaus who was guilty of all the evil, was acquitted by him of the accusations: and those poor men, who, if they had pleaded their cause even before Scythians, should have been judged innocent, were condemned to death. 48 Thus they that prosecuted the cause for the city, and for the people, and the sacred vessels, did soon suffer unjust punishment. 49 Wherefore even the Tyrians being moved with indignation, were liberal towards their burial. 50 And so through the covetousness of them that were in power, Menelaus continued in authority, increasing in malice to the betraying of the citizens.
1 At the same time Antiochus prepared for a second journey into Egypt. 2 And it came to pass that through the whole city of Jerusalem for the space of forty days there were seen horsemen running in the air, in gilded raiment, and armed with spears, like bands of soldiers. 3 And horses set in order by ranks, running one against another, with the shakings of shields, and a multitude of men in helmets, with drawn swords, and casting of darts, and glittering of golden armour, and of harnesses of all sorts. 4 Wherefore all men prayed that these prodigies might turn to good. 5 Now when there was gone forth a false rumour, as though Antiochus had been dead, Jason taking with him no fewer than a thousand men, suddenly assaulted the city: and though the citizens ran together to the wall, the city at length was taken, and Menelaus fled into the castle. 6 But Jason slew his countrymen without mercy, not considering that prosperity against one's own kindred is a very great evil, thinking they had been enemies, and not citizens, whom he conquered. 7 Yet he did not get the principality, but received confusion at the end, for the reward of his treachery, and fled again into the country of the Ammonites. 8 At the last having been shut up by Aretas the king of the Arabians, in order for his destruction, flying from city to city, hated by all men, as a forsaker of the laws, and execrable, as an enemy of his country and countrymen, he was thrust out into Egypt: 9 And he that had driven many out of their country, perished in a strange land, going to Lacedemon, as if for kindred sake he should have refuge there: 10 But he that had cast out many unburied, was himself cast forth both unlamented and unburied, neither having foreign burial, nor being partaker of the sepulchre of his fathers. 11 Now when these things were done, the king suspected that the Jews would forsake the alliance: whereupon departing out of Egypt with a furious mind, he took the city by force of arms. 12 And commanded the soldiers to kill, and not to spare any that came in their way, and to go up into the houses to slay. 13 Thus there was a slaughter of young and old, a destruction of women and children, and killing of virgins and infants. 14 And there were slain in the space of three whole days fourscore thousand, forty thousand were made prisoners, and as many sold. 15 But this was not enough; he presumed also to enter into the temple, the most holy in all the world, Menelaus, that traitor to the laws, and to his country, being his guide. 16 And taking in his wicked hands the holy vessels, which were given by other kings and cities, for the ornament and the glory of the place, he unworthily handled and profaned them. 17 Thus Antiochus going astray in mind, did not consider that God was angry for a while, because of the sins of the habitants of the city: and therefore this contempt had happened to the place: 18 Otherwise had they not been involved in many sins, as Heliodorus, who was sent by king Seleucus to rob the treasury, so this man also, as soon as had come, had been forthwith scourged, and put back from his presumption. 19 But God did not choose the people for the place's sake, but the place for the people's sake. 20 And therefore the place also itself was made partaker of the evils of the people: but afterward shall communicate in the good things thereof, and as it was forsaken in the wrath of almighty God, shall be exalted again with great glory, when the great Lord shall be reconciled. 21 So when Antiochus had taken away out of the temple a thousand and eight hundred talents, he went back in all haste to Antioch, thinking through pride, that he might now make the land navigable, and the sea passable on foot: such was the haughtiness of his mind. 22 He left also governors to afflict the people: at Jerusalem, Philip, a Phrygian by birth, but in manners more barbarous than he that set him there: 23 And in Gazarim, Andronicus and Menelaus...
Ohio State University Leaf 06 Verso
grávius quam céteri imminébant cívibus. Cumque appósitus esset contra Judaeos, misit odiósum príncipem Apollónium cum exércitu vigínti et duóbus míllibus, præcípiens ei omnes perféctæ ætátis interfícere, mulíeres ac júvenes véndere. Qui cum venísset Jerosólymam, pacem simúlans, quiévit usque ad diem sanctum sábbati: et tunc feriátis Judaeis arma cápere suis præcépit. Omnésque qui ad spectáculum procésserant, trucidávit: et civitátem cum armátis discúrrens, ingéntem multitúdinem perémit. Judas autem Machabaeus, qui décimus fúerat, secésserat in desértum locum, ibíque inter feras vitam in móntibus cum suis agébat: et fœni cibo vescéntes, demorabántur, ne partícipes essent coinquinatiónis. VI. Sed non post multum témporis, misit rex senem quemdam Antióchenum, qui compélleret Judaeos ut se transférrent a pátriis et Dei légibus: contamináre étiam quod in Jerosólymis erat templum, et cognomináre Jovis Olýmpii: et in Garízim, prout erant hi qui locum inhabitábant, Jovis hospitális. Péssima autem et univérsis gravis erat malórum incúrsio: nam templum luxúria et comessatiónibus géntium erat plenum, et scortántium cum meretrícibus: sacratísque aedibus mulíeres se ultro ingerébant, intro feréntes ea quæ non licébat. Altáre étiam plenum erat illícitis, quæ légibus prohibebántur. Neque autem sábbata custodiebántur, neque dies solémnes pátrii servabántur, nec simplíciter Judaeum se esse quisquam confitebátur. Ducebántur autem cum amára necessitáte in die natális regis ad sacrifícia: et cum Líberi sacra celebraréntur, cogebántur hédera coronáti Líbero circuíre. Decrétum autem éxiit in próximas gentílium civitátes, suggeréntibus Ptolemaeis, ut pari modo et ipsi advérsus Judaeos ágerent, ut sacrificárent: eos autem qui nollent transíre ad institúta géntium, interfícerent: erat ergo vidére misériam. Duæ enim mulíeres delátæ sunt natos suos circumcidísse: quas, infántibus ad úbera suspénsis, cum públice per civitátem circumduxíssent, per muros præcipitavérunt. Álii vero, ad próximas coëúntes spelúncas, et laténter sábbati diem celebrántes, cum indicáti essent Philíppo, flammis succénsi sunt, eo quod verebántur propter religiónem et observántiam manu síbimet auxílium ferre. Óbsecro autem eos qui hunc librum lectúri sunt, ne abhorréscant propter advérsos casus: sed réputent ea quæ accidérunt, non ad intéritum, sed ad correptiónem esse géneris nostri. Étenim multo témpore non sínere peccatóribus ex senténtia ágere, sed statim ultiónes adhibére, magni benefícii est indícium. Non enim, sicut in áliis natiónibus, Dóminus patiénter exspéctat, ut eas cum judícii dies advénerit, in plenitúdine peccatórum púniat: ita et in nobis státuit ut, peccátis nostris in finem devolútis,
ita demum in nos víndicet. Propter quod numquam quidem a nobis misericórdiam suam ámovet: corrípiens vero in advérsis, pópulum suum non derelíquit. Sed hæc nobis ad commonitiónem legéntium dicta sint paucis. Jam enim veniéndum est ad narratiónem. Ígitur Eleazárus, unus de primóribus scribárum, vir ætáte provéctus, et vultu decórus, apérto ore hians compellebátur carnem porcínam manducáre. At ille gloriosíssimam mortem magis quam odíbilem vitam compléctens, voluntárie præíbat ad supplícium. Íntuens autem quemádmodum opórteret accédere, patiénter sústinens, destinávit non admíttere illícita propter vitæ amórem. Hi autem qui astábant, iníqua miseratióne commóti propter antíquam viri amicítiam, tolléntes eum secréto rogábant afférri carnes quibus vesci ei licébat, ut simularétur manducásse sicut rex imperáverat de sacrifícii cárnibus, ut hoc facto, a morte liberarétur: et propter véterem viri amicítiam, hanc in eo faciébant humanitátem. At ille cogitáre cœpit ætátis ac senectútis suæ eminéntiam dignam, et ingénitæ nobilitátis canítiem, atque a púero óptimæ conversatiónis actus: et secúndum sanctæ et a Deo cónditæ legis constitúta, respóndit cito, dicens præmítti se velle in inférnum. Non enim ætáti nostræ dignum est, inquit, fíngere: ut multi adolescéntium, arbitrántes Eleazárum nonagínta annórum transísse ad vitam alienigenárum, et ipsi propter meam simulatiónem, et propter módicum corruptíbilis vitæ tempus decipiántur, et per hoc máculam atque execratiónem meæ senectúti conquíram. Nam etsi in præsénti témpore supplíciis hóminum erípiar, sed manum Omnipoténtis nec vivus, nec defúnctus, effúgiam. Quam ob rem fórtiter vita excedéndo, senectúte quidem dignus apparébo: adolescéntibus autem exémplum forte relínquam, si prompto ánimo ac fórtiter pro gravíssimis ac sanctíssimis légibus honésta morte perfúngar. His dictis, conféstim ad supplícium trahebátur. Hi autem qui eum ducébant, et paulo ante fúerant mitióres, in iram convérsi sunt propter sermónes ab eo dictos, quos illi per arrogántiam prolátos arbitrabántur. Sed cum plagis perimerétur, ingémuit, et dixit: Dómine, qui habes sanctam sciéntiam, maniféste tu scis quia cum a morte possem liberári, duros córporis sustíneo dolóres: secúndum ánimam vero propter timórem tuum libénter hæc pátior. Et iste quidem hoc modo vita decéssit, non solum juvénibus, sed et univérsæ genti memóriam mortis suæ ad exémplum virtútis et fortitúdinis derelínquens. VII. Cóntigit autem et septem fratres una cum matre sua apprehénsos compélli a rege édere contra fas carnes porcínas, flagris et táureis cruciátos. Unus autem ex illis, qui erat primus, sic ait: Quid quæris
[2 Maccabees 5:23-7:2]
...who bore a more heavy hand upon the citizens than the rest. 24 And whereas he was set against the Jews, he sent that hateful prince Apollonius with an army of two and twenty thousand men, commanding him to kill all that were of perfect age, and to sell the women and the younger sort. 25 Who when he was come to Jerusalem, pretending peace, rested till the holy day of the sabbath: and then the Jews keeping holiday, he commanded his men to take arms. 26 And he slew all that were come forth to see: and running through the city with armed men, he destroyed a very great multitude. 27 But Judas Machabeus, who was the tenth, had withdrawn himself into a desert place, and there lived amongst wild beasts in the mountains with his company: and they continued feeding on herbs, that they might not be partakers of the pollution.
1 But not long after the king sent a certain old man of Antioch, to compel the Jews to depart from the laws of their fathers and of God: 2 And to defile the temple that was in Jerusalem, and to call it the temple of Jupiter Olympius: and that in Gazarim of Jupiter Hospitalis, according as they were that inhabited the place. 3 And very bad was this invasion of evils and grievous to all. 4 For the temple was full of the riot and revellings of the Gentiles: and of men lying with lewd women. And women thrust themselves of their accord into the holy places, and brought in things that were not lawful. 5 The altar also was filled with unlawful things, which were forbidden by the laws. 6 And neither were the sabbaths kept, nor the solemn days of the fathers observed, neither did any man plainly profess himself to be a Jew. 7 But they were led by bitter constraint on the king's birthday to the sacrifices: and when the feast of Bacchus was kept, they were compelled to go about crowned with ivy in honour of Bacchus. 8 And there went out a decree into the neighbouring cities of the Gentiles, by the suggestion of the Ptolemeans, that they also should act in like manner against the Jews, to oblige them to sacrifice: 9 And whosoever would not conform themselves to the ways of the Gentiles, should be put to death: then was misery to be seen. 10 For two women were accused to have circumcised their children: whom, when they had openly led about through the city with the infants hanging at their breasts, they threw down headlong from the walls. 11 And others that had met together in caves that were near, and were keeping the sabbath day privately, being discovered by Philip, were burnt with fire, because they made a conscience to help themselves with their hands, by reason of the religious observance of the day. 12 Now I beseech those that shall read this book, that they be not shocked at these calamities, but that they consider the things that happened, not as being for the destruction, but for the correction of our nation. 13 For it is a token of great goodness when sinners are not suffered to go on in their ways for a long time, but are presently punished. 14 For, not as with other nations (whom the Lord patiently expecteth, that when the day of judgment shall come, he may punish them in the fulness of their sins:) 15 Doth he also deal with us, so as to suffer our sins to come to their height, and then take vengeance on us. 16 And therefore he never withdraweth his mercy from us: but though he chastise his people with adversity, he forsaketh them not. 17 But let this suffice in a few words for a warning to the readers. And now we must come to the narration. 18 Eleazar one of the chief of the scribes, a man advanced in years, and of a comely countenance, was pressed to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh. 19 But he, choosing rather a most glorious death than a hateful life, went forward voluntarily to the torment. 20 And considering in what manner he was come to it, patiently bearing, he determined not to do any unlawful things for the love of life. 21 But they that stood by, being moved with wicked pity, for the old friendship they had with the man, taking him aside, desired that flesh might be brought, which it was lawful for him to eat, that he might make as if he had eaten, as the king had commanded of the flesh of the sacrifice: 22 That by so doing he might be delivered from death: and for the sake of their old friendship with the man they did him this courtesy. 23 But he began to consider the dignity of his age, and his ancient years, and the inbred honour of his grey head, and his good life and conversation from a child: and he answered without delay, according to the ordinances of the holy law made by God, saying, that he would rather be sent into the other world. 24 For it doth not become our age, said he, to dissemble: whereby many young persons might think that Eleazar, at the age of fourscore and ten years, was gone over to the life of the heathens: 25 And so they, through my dissimulation, and for a little time of a corruptible life, should be deceived, and hereby I should bring a stain and a curse upon my old age. 26 For though, for the present time, I should be delivered from the punishments of men, yet should I not escape the hand of the Almighty neither alive nor dead. 27 Wherefore by departing manfully out of this life, I shall shew myself worthy of my old age: 28 And I shall leave an example of fortitude to young men, if with a ready mind and constancy I suffer an honourable death, for the most venerable and most holy laws. And having spoken thus, he was forthwith carried to execution. 29 And they that led him, and had been a little before more mild, were changed to wrath for the words he had spoken, which they thought were uttered out of arrogancy. 30 But when he was now ready to die with the stripes, he groaned, and said: O Lord, who hast the holy knowledge, thou knowest manifestly that whereas I might be delivered from death, I suffer grevious pains in body: but in soul am well content to suffer these things because I fear thee. 31 Thus did this man die, leaving not only to young men, but also to the whole nation, the memory of his death for an example of virtue and fortitude.
1 It came to pass also, that seven brethren, together with their mother, were apprehended, and compelled by the king to eat swine's flesh against the law, for which end they were tormented with whips and scourges. 2 But one of them, who was the eldest, said thus...