Lima Public Library Leaf 11
This leaf is from an Italian bible of the 13th century. It measures 19.5 x 13cm and the vellum is thin and supple, with minimal yellowing. It is lined with plummet, and includes blue, red, and black ink. The text is rotunda gothic. Though not illuminated, the leaf includes decorative initials with flourishes, as well as red and blue book numbers and chapter names. The first letter of most verses is pricked out in red. See Denison University Leaf 11 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: Ecclesiastes 2:1-3:13 (recto) and 3:13-5:11 (verso).
Lima Public Library Leaf 11 Recto
quoque esset vánitas. Risum reputávi errórem, et gáudio dixi: Quid frustra decíperis? Cogitávi in corde meo abstráhere a vino carnem meam, ut ánimam meam transférrem ad sapiéntiam, devitarémque stultítiam, donec vidérem quid esset útile fíliis hóminum, quo facto opus est sub sole número diérum vitæ suæ. Magnificávi ópera mea, ædificávi mihi domos, et plantávi víneas; feci hortos et pomária, et cónsevi ea cuncti géneris arbóribus; et exstrúxi mihi piscínas aquárum, ut irrigárem silvam lignórum germinántium. Possédi servos et ancíllas, multámque famíliam hábui: arménta quoque, et magnos óvium greges, ultra omnes qui fuérunt ante me in Jerúsalem; coacervávi mihi argéntum et aurum, et substántias regum ac provinciárum; feci mihi cantóres et cantatríces, et delícias filiórum hóminum, scyphos, et úrceos in ministério ad vina fundénda; et supergréssus sum ópibus omnes qui ante me fuérunt in Jerúsalem: sapiéntia quoque perseverávit mecum. Et ómnia quæ desideravérunt óculi mei non negávi eis, nec prohíbui cor meum quin omni voluptáte fruerétur, et oblectáret se in his quæ præparáveram; et hanc ratus sum partem meam si úterer labóre meo. Cumque me convertíssem ad univérsa ópera quæ fécerant manus meæ, et ad labóres in quibus frustra sudáveram, vidi in ómnibus vanitátem et afflictiónem ánimi, et nihil permanére sub sole. Transívi ad contemplándam sapiéntiam, errorésque, et stultítiam. (Quid est, inquam, homo, ut sequi possit regem, factórem suum?) Et vidi quod tantum præcéderet sapiéntia stultítiam, quantum differt lux a ténebris. Sapiéntis óculi in cápite ejus; stultus in ténebris ámbulat: et dídici quod unus utriúsque esset intéritus. Et dixi in corde meo: Si unus et stulti et meus occásus erit, quid mihi prodest quod majórem sapiéntiæ dedi óperam? Locutúsque cum mente mea, animadvérti quod hoc quoque esset vánitas. Non enim erit memória sapiéntis simíliter ut stulti in perpétuum, et futúra témpora oblivióne cuncta páriter opérient: móritur doctus simíliter ut indóctus. Et idcírco taeduit me vitæ meæ, vidéntem mala univérsa esse sub sole, et cuncta vanitátem
et afflictiónem spíritus. Rursus detestátus sum omnem indústriam meam, qua sub sole studiosíssime laborávi, habitúrus haeredem post me, quem ignóro utrum sápiens an stultus futúrus sit, et dominábitur in labóribus meis, quibus desudávi et sollícitus fui: et est quidquam tam vanum? Unde cessávi, renuntiavítque cor meum ultra laboráre sub sole. Nam cum álius labóret in sapiéntia, et doctrína, et sollicitúdine, hómini otióso qu?sita dimíttit; et hoc ergo vánitas et magnum malum. Quid enim próderit hómini de univérso labóre suo, et afflictióne spíritus, qua sub sole cruciátus est? Cuncti dies ejus dolóribus et ærúmnis pleni sunt, nec per noctem mente requiéscit. Et hoc nonne vánitas est? Nonne mélius est comédere et bíbere, et osténdere ánimæ suæ bona de labóribus suis? et hoc de manu Dei est. Quis ita devorábit et delíciis áffluet ut ego? Hómini bono in conspéctu suo dedit Deus sapiéntiam, et sciéntiam, et lætítiam; peccatóri autem dedit afflictiónem et curam supérfluam, ut addat, et cóngreget, et tradat ei qui plácuit Deo; sed et hoc vánitas est, et cassa sollicitúdo mentis. III. Ómnia tempus habent, et suis spátiis tránseunt univérsa sub cælo. Tempus nascéndi, et tempus moriéndi; tempus plantándi, et tempus evelléndi quod plantátum est. Tempus occidéndi, et tempus sanándi; tempus destruéndi, et tempus ædificándi. Tempus flendi, et tempus ridéndi; tempus plangéndi, et tempus saltándi. Tempus spargéndi lápides, et tempus colligéndi, tempus amplexándi, et tempus longe fíeri ab ampléxibus. Tempus acquiréndi, et tempus perdéndi; tempus custodiéndi, et tempus abjiciéndi. Tempus scindéndi, et tempus consuéndi; tempus tacéndi, et tempus loquéndi. Tempus dilectiónis, et tempus ódii; tempus belli, et tempus pacis. Quid habet ámplius homo de labóre suo? Vidi afflictiónem quam dedit Deus fíliis hóminum, ut distendántur in ea. Cuncta fecit bona in témpore suo, et mundum trádidit disputatióni eórum, ut non invéniat homo opus quod operátus est Deus ab inítio usque ad finem. Et cognóvi quod non esset mélius nisi lætári, et fácere bene in vita sua; omnis enim homo qui cómedit et bibit, et videt bonum de labó-
And I saw that this also was vanity. 2 Laughter I counted error: and to mirth I said: Why art thou vainly deceived? 3 I thought in my heart, to withdraw my flesh from wine, that I might turn my mind to wisdom, and might avoid folly, till I might see what was profitable for the children of men: and what they ought to do under the sun, all the days of their life. 4 I made me great works, I built me houses, and planted vineyards, 5 I made gardens, and orchards, and set them with trees of all kinds, 6 And I made me ponds of water, to water therewith the wood of the young trees, 7 I got me menservants, and maidservants, and had a great family: and herds of oxen, and great flocks of sheep, above all that were before me in Jerusalem: 8 I heaped together for myself silver and gold, and the wealth of kings, and provinces: I made me singing men, and singing women, and the delights of the sons of men, cups and vessels to serve to pour out wine: 9 And I surpassed in riches all that were before me in Jerusalem: my wisdom also remained with me. 10 And whatsoever my eyes desired, I refused them not: and I withheld not my heart from enjoying every pleasure, and delighting itself in the things which I had prepared: and esteemed this my portion, to make use of my own labour. 11 And when I turned myself to all the works which my hands had wrought, and to the labours wherein I had laboured in vain, I saw in all things vanity, and vexation of mind, and that nothing was lasting under the sun. 12 I passed further to behold wisdom, and errors and folly, (What is man, said I, that he can follow the King his maker?) 13 And I saw that wisdom excelled folly, as much as light differeth from darkness. 14 The eyes of a wise man are in his head: the fool walketh in darkness: and I learned that they were to die both alike. 15 And I said in my heart: If the death of the fool and mine shall be one, what doth it avail me, that I have applied myself more to the study of wisdom? And speaking with my own mind, I perceived that this also was vanity. 16 For there shall be no remembrance of the wise no more than of the fool for ever, and the times to come shall cover all things together with oblivion: the learned dieth in like manner as the unlearned. 17 And therefore I was weary of my life, when I saw that all things under the sun are evil, and all vanity and vexation of spirit. 18 Again I hated all my application wherewith I had earnestly laboured under the sun, being like to have an heir after me, 19 Whom I know not whether he will be a wise man or a fool, and he shall have rule over all my labours with which I have laboured and been solicitous: and is there any thing so vain? 20 Wherefore I left off and my heart renounced labouring any more under the sun. 21 For when a man laboureth in wisdom, and knowledge, and carefulness, he leaveth what he hath gotten to an idle man: so this also is vanity, and a great evil. 22 For what profit shall a man have of all his labour, and vexation of spirit, with which he hath been tormented under the sun? 23 All his days are full of sorrows and miseries, even in the night he doth not rest in mind: and is not this vanity? 24 Is it not better to eat and drink, and to shew his soul good things of his labours? and this is from the hand of God. 25 Who shall so feast and abound with delights as I? 26 God hath given to a man that is good in his sight, wisdom, and knowledge, and joy: but to the sinner he hath given vexation, and superfluous care, to heap up and to gather together, and to give it to him that hath pleased God: but this also is vanity, and a fruitless solicitude of the mind.
1 All things have their season, and in their times all things pass under heaven. 2 A time to be born and a time to die. A time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted. 3 A time to kill, and a time to heal. A time to destroy, and a time to build. 4 A time to weep, and a time to laugh. A time to mourn, and a time to dance. 5 A time to scatter stones, and a time to gather. A time to embrace, and a time to be far from embraces. 6 A time to get, and a time to lose. A time to keep, and a time to cast away. 7 A time to rend, and a time to sew. A time to keep silence, and a time to speak. 8 A time of love, and a time of hatred. A time of war, and a time of peace. 9 What hath man more of his labour? 10 I have seen the trouble, which God hath given the sons of men to be exercised in it. 11 He hath made all things good in their time, and hath delivered the world to their consideration, so that man cannot flnd out the work which God hath made from the beginning to the end. 12 And I have known that there was no better thing than to rejoice, and to do well in this life. 13 For every man that eateth and drinketh, and seeth good of his labour...
Lima Public Library Leaf 11 Verso
suo, hoc donum Dei est. Dídici quod ómnia ópera quæ fecit Deus persevérent in perpétuum; non póssumus eis quidquam áddere, nec auférre, quæ fecit Deus ut timeátur. Quod factum est, ipsum pérmanet; quæ futúra sunt jam fuérunt, et Deus instáurat quod ábiit. Vidi sub sole in loco judícii impietátem, et in loco justítiæ iniquitátem: et dixi in corde meo: Justum et ímpium judicábit Deus, et tempus omnis rei tunc erit. Dixi in corde meo de fíliis hóminum, ut probáret eos Deus, et osténderet símiles esse béstiis. Idcírco unus intéritus est hóminis et jumentórum, et æqua utriúsque condítio. Sicut móritur homo, sic et illa moriúntur. Simíliter spirant ómnia, et nihil habet homo juménto ámplius: cuncta subjácent vanitáti, et ómnia pergunt ad unum locum. De terra facta sunt, et in terram páriter revertúntur. Quis novit si spíritus filiórum Adam ascéndat sursum, et si spíritus jumentórum descéndat deórsum? Et deprehéndi nihil esse mélius quam lætári hóminem in ópere suo, et hanc esse partem illíus. Quis enim eum addúcet ut post se futúra cognóscat ? IIII. Verti me ad ália, et vidi calúmnias quæ sub sole gerúntur, et lácrimas innocéntium, et néminem consolatórem, nec posse resístere eórum violéntiæ, cunctórum auxílio destitútos, et laudávi magis mórtuos quam vivéntes; et feliciórem utróque judicávi qui necdum natus est, nec vidit mala quæ sub sole fiunt. Rursum contemplátus sum omnes labóres hóminum, et indústrias animadvérti patére invídiæ próximi; et in hoc ergo vánitas et cura supérflua est. Stultus cómplicat manus suas, et cómedit carnes suas, dicens: Mélior est pugíllus cum réquie, quam plena utráque manus cum labóre et afflictióne ánimi. Consíderans, réperi et áliam vanitátem sub sole. Unus est, et secúndum non habet, non fílium, non fratrem, et tamen laboráre non cessat, nec satiántur óculi ejus divítiis; nec recógitat, dicens: Cui labóro, et fraudo ánimam meam bonis? In hoc quoque vánitas est et afflíctio péssima. Mélius est ergo duos esse simul
quam unum; habent enim emoluméntum societátis suæ. Si unus cecíderit, ab áltero fulciétur. Væ soli, quia cum cecíderit, non habet sublevántem se. Et si dormíerint duo, fovebúntur mútuo; unus quómodo caléfiet? Et si quíspiam prævalúerit contra unum, duo resístunt ei; funículus triplex diffícile rúmpitur. Mélior est puer pauper et sápiens, rege sene et stulto, qui nescit prævídere in pósterum. Quod de cárcere catenísque intérdum quis egrediátur ad regnum; et álius, natus in regno, inópia consumátur. Vidi cunctos vivéntes qui ámbulant sub sole cum adolescénte secúndo, qui consúrget pro eo. Infinítus númerus est pópuli ómnium qui fuérunt ante eum, et qui póstea futúri sunt non lætabúntur in eo; sed et hoc vánitas et afflíctio spíritus. Custódi pedem tuum ingrédiens domum Dei, et appropínqua ut áudias. Multo enim mélior est obediéntia quam stultórum víctimæ, qui nésciunt quid fáciunt mali. V. Ne témere quid loquáris, neque cor tuum sit velox ad proferéndum sermónem coram Deo. Deus enim in cælo, et tu super terram; idcírco sint pauci sermónes tui. Multas curas sequúntur sómnia, et in multis sermónibus inveniétur stultítia. Si quid vovísti Deo, ne moréris réddere: dísplicet enim ei infidélis et stulta promíssio, sed quodcúmque vóveris redde: multóque mélius est non vóvere, quam post votum promíssa non réddere. Ne déderis os tuum ut peccáre fácias carnem tuam, neque dicas coram ángelo: Non est providéntia: ne forte irátus Deus contra sermónes tuos díssipet cuncta ópera mánuum tuárum. Ubi multa sunt sómnia, plúrimæ sunt vanitátes, et sermónes innúmeri; tu vero Deum time. Si víderis calúmnias egenórum, et violénta judícia, et subvérti justítiam in província, non miréris super hoc negótio: quia excélso excélsior est álius, et super hos quoque eminentióres sunt álii; et ínsuper univérsæ terræ rex ímperat serviénti. Avárus non implébitur pecúnia, et qui amat divítias fructum non cápiet ex eis; et hoc ergo vánitas. Ubi multæ sunt opes, multi et qui cómedunt eas. Et quid prodest possessóri, nisi quod cernit divítias óculis suis? Dulcis est somnus operánti, sive parum sive
...this is the gift of God. 14 I have learned that all the works which God hath made, continue for ever: we cannot add any thing, nor take away from those things which God hath made that he may be feared. 15 That which hath been made, the same continueth: the things that shall be, have already been: and God restoreth that which is past. 16 I saw under the sun in the place of judgment wickedness, and in the place of justice iniquity. 17 And I said in my heart: God shall judge both the just and the wicked, and then shall be the time of every thing. 18 I said in my heart concerning the sons of men, that God would prove them, and shew them to be like beasts. 19 Therefore the death of man, and of beasts is one, and the condition of them both is equal: as man dieth, so they also die: all things breathe alike, and man hath nothing more than beast: all things are subject to vanity. 20 And all things go to one place: of earth they were made, and into earth they return together. 21 Who knoweth if the spirit of the children of Adam ascend upward, and if the spirit of the beasts descend downward? 22 And I have found that nothing is better than for a man to rejoice in his work, and that this is his portion. For who shall bring him to know the things that shall be after him?
1 I turned myself to other things, and I saw the oppressions that are done under the sun, and the tears of the innocent, and they had no comforter; and they were not able to resist their violence, being destitute of help from any. 2 And I praised the dead rather than the living: 3 And I judged him happier than them both, that is not yet born, nor hath seen the evils that are done under the sun. 4 Again I considered all the labours of men, and I remarked that their industries are exposed to the envy of their neighhour: so in this also there is vanity, and fruitless care. 5 The fool foldeth his hands together, and eateth his own flesh, saying: 6 Better is a handful with rest, than both hands full with labour, and vexation of mind. 7 Considering I found also another vanity under the sun: 8 There is but one, and he hath not a second, no child, no brother, and yet he ceaseth not to labour, neither are his eyes satisfied with riches, neither doth he reflect, saying: For whom do I labour, and defraud my soul of good things? in this also is vanity, and a grievous vexation. 9 It is better therefore that two should be together, than one: for they have the advantage of their society: 10 If one fall he shall be supported by the other: woe to him that is alone, for when he falleth, he hath none to lift him up. 11 And if two lie together, they shall warm one another: how shall one alone be warmed? 12 And if a man prevail against one, two shall withstand him: a threefold cord is not easily broken. 13 Better is a child that is poor and wise, than a king that is old and foolish, who knoweth not to foresee for hereafter. 14 Because out of prison and chains sometimes a man cometh forth to a kingdom: and another born king is consumed with poverty. 15 I saw all men living, that walk under the sun with the second young man, who shall rise up in his place. 16 The number of the people, of all that were before him is infinite: and they that shall come afterwards, shall not rejoice in him: but this also is vanity, and vexation of spirit. 17 Keep thy foot, when thou goest into the house of God, and draw nigh to hear. For much better is obedience, than the victims of fools, who know not what evil they do.
1 Speak not any thing rashly, and let not thy heart be hasty to utter a word before God. For God is in heaven, and thou upon earth: therefore let thy words be few. 2 Dreams follow many cares: and in many words shall be found folly. 3 If thou hast vowed any thing to God, defer not to pay it: for an unfaithful and foolish promise displeaseth him: but whatsoever thou hast vowed, pay it. 4 And it is much better not to vow, than after a vow not to perform the things promised. 5 Give not thy mouth to cause thy flesh to sin: and say not before the angel: There is no providence: lest God be angry at thy words, and destroy all the works of thy hands. 6 Where there are many dreams, there are many vanities, and words without number: but do thou fear God. 7 If thou shalt see the oppressions of the poor, and violent judgments, and justice perverted in the province, wonder not at this matter: for he that is high hath another higher, and there are others still higher than these: 8 Moreover there is the king that reigneth over all the land subject to him. 9 A covetous man shall not be satisfied with money: and he that loveth riches shall reap no fruit from them: so this also is vanity. 10 Where there are great riches, there are also many to eat them. And what doth it profit the owner, but that he seeth the riches with his eyes? 11 Sleep is sweet to a labouring man...