Kenyon College Leaf 14
This leaf comes from a French Bible of the late thirteenth century. The vellum is thin, white, and supple with minimal yellowing, measuring a substantial 40.5 x 27 cm. Lining is done in light ink or lead, and the script is an angular gothic. The bulk of the text is in brown ink, with red, blue, coral, white, and beige for the decorations. This leaf is heavily illuminated and decorated, including elaborate initials and foliage, highlighted book names and chapter numbers, and extensive use of gold leaf. But while the decoration is exceptional, we see on these leaves an unusual number of scribal corrections (especially erasures and strikethroughs). See Denison University Leaf 14 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: Hebrews 10:20-11:28 (recto) and 11:28-13:4 (verso).
Kenyon College Leaf 14 Recto
-unciavit nobis viam novam, et vivéntem per velámen, id est, carnem suam, et sacerdótem magnum super domum Dei: accedámus cum vero corde in plenitúdine fídei, aspérsi corda a consciéntia mala, et ablúti corpus aqua munda, teneámus spei nostræ confessiónem indeclinábilem (fídelis enim est qui repromísit), et considerémus ínvicem in provocatiónem caritátis, et bonórum óperum: non deseréntes collectiónem nostram, sicut consuetúdinis est quibúsdam, sed consolántes, et tanto magis quanto vidéritis appropinquántem diem. Voluntárie enim peccántibus nobis post accéptam notítiam veritátis, jam non relínquitur pro peccátis hóstia, terríbilis autem quædam exspectátio judícii, et ignis æmulátio, quæ consumptúra est adversários. Írritam quis fáciens legem Móysi, sine ulla miseratióne duóbus vel tribus téstibus móritur: quanto magis putátis deterióra méreri supplícia qui Fílium Dei conculcáverit, et sánguinem testaménti pollútum dúxerit, in quo sanctificátus est, et spirítui grátiæ contuméliam fécerit? Scimus enim qui dixit: Mihi vindícta, et ego retríbuam. Et íterum: Quia judicábit Dóminus pópulum suum. Horréndum est incídere in manus Dei vivéntis. Rememorámini autem prístinos dies, in quibus illumináti, magnum certámen sustinuístis passiónum: et in áltero quidem oppróbriis et tribulatiónibus spectáculum facti: in áltero autem sócii táliter conversántium effécti. Nam et vinctis compássi estis, et rapínam bonórum vestrórum cum gáudio suscepístis, cognoscéntes vos habére meliórem et manéntem substántiam. Nolíte ítaque amíttere confidéntiam vestram, quæ magnam habet remuneratiónem. Patiéntia enim vobis necessária est: ut voluntátem Dei faciéntes, reportétis promissiónem. Adhuc enim módicum aliquántulum, qui ventúrus est, véniet, et non tardábit. Justus autem meus ex fide vivit: quod si subtráxerit se, non placébit ánimæ meæ. Nos autem non sumus subtractiónis fílii in perditiónem, sed fídei in acquisitiónem ánimæ. XI. Est autem fides sperandárum substántia rerum, arguméntum non apparéntium. In hac enim testimónium consecúti sunt senes. Fide intellígimus aptáta esse saecula verbo Dei: ut ex invisibílibus visibília fíerent. Fide plúrimam hóstiam Abel, quam Cain, óbtulit Deo, per quam testimónium consecútus est esse justus, testimónium perhibénte munéribus ejus Deo, et per illam defúnctus adhuc lóquitur. Fide Henoch trans-
-látus est ne vidéret mortem, et non inveniebátur, quia tránstulit illum Deus: ante translatiónem enim testimónium hábuit placuísse Deo. Sine fide autem impossíbile est placére Deo. Crédere enim opórtet accedéntem ad Deum quia est, et inquiréntibus se remunerátor sit. Fide Noë respónso accépto de iis quæ adhuc non videbántur, métuens aptávit arcam in salútem domus suæ, per quam damnávit mundum: et justítiæ, quæ per fidem est, hæres est institútus. Fide qui vocátur Ábraham obedívit in locum exíre, quem acceptúrus erat in hæreditátem: et éxiit, nésciens quo iret. Fide demorátus est in terra repromissiónis, tamquam in aliéna, in cásulis habitándo cum Ísaac et Jacob cohærédibus repromissiónis ejúsdem. Exspectábat enim fundaménta habéntem civitátem: cujus ártifex et cónditor Deus. Fide et ipsa Sara stérilis virtútem in conceptiónem séminis accépit, étiam præter tempus ætátis: quóniam fidélem crédidit esse eum qui repromíserat. Propter quod et ab uno orti sunt (et hoc emórtuo) tamquam sídera cæli in multitúdinem, et sicut aréna, quæ est ad oram maris, innumerábilis. Juxta fidem defúncti sunt omnes isti, non accéptis repromissiónibus, sed a longe eas aspiciéntes, et salutántes, et confiténtes quia peregríni et hóspites sunt super terram. Qui enim hæc dicunt, signíficant se pátriam inquírere. Et si quidem ipsíus meminíssent de qua exiérunt, habébant útique tempus reverténdi: nunc autem meliórem appétunt, id est, cæléstem. Ídeo non confúnditur Deus vocári Deus eórum: parávit enim illis civitátem. Fide óbtulit Ábraham Ísaac, cum tentarétur, et unigénitum offerébat, qui suscéperat repromissiónes: ad quem dictum est: Quia in Ísaac vocábitur tibi semen: árbitrans quia et a mórtuis suscitáre potens est Deus: unde eum et in parábolam accépit. Fide et de futúris benedíxit Ísaac Jacob et Ésau. Fide Jacob, móriens, síngulos filiórum Joseph benedíxit: et adorávit fastígium virgæ ejus. Fide Joseph, móriens, de profectióne filiórum Israël memorátus est, et de óssibus suis mandávit. Fide Móyses, natus, occultátus est ménsibus tribus a paréntibus suis, eo quod vidíssent elegántem infántem, et non timuérunt regis edíctum. Fide Móyses grandis factus negávit se esse fílium fíliæ Pharaónis, magis éligens afflígi cum pópulo Dei, quam temporális peccáti habére jucunditátem, majóres divítias aestimans thesáuro Ægyptiórum, impropérium Christi: aspiciébat enim in remuneratiónem. Fide relíquit Ægýptum, non véritus animositátem regis: invisíbilem enim tamquam videns sustínuit. Fide celebrávit Pascha, et sánguin-
and living way which he hath dedicated for us through the veil, that is to say, his flesh, 21 And a high priest over the house of God: 22 Let us draw near with a true heart in fulness of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with clean water. 23 Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering (for he is faithful that hath promised), 24 And let us consider one another, to provoke unto charity and to good works: 25 Not forsaking our assembly, as some are accustomed; but comforting one another, and so much the more as you see the day approaching. 26 For if we sin wilfully after having the knowledge of the truth, there is now left no sacrifice for sins, 27 But a certain dreadful expectation of judgment, and the rage of a fire which shall consume the adversaries. 28 A man making void the law of Moses, dieth without any mercy under two or three witnesses: 29 How much more, do you think he deserveth worse punishments, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath esteemed the blood of the testament unclean, by which he was sanctified, and hath offered an affront to the Spirit of grace? 30 For we know him that hath said: Vengeance belongeth to me, and I will repay. And again: The Lord shall judge his people. 31 It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God. 32 But call to mind the former days, wherein, being illuminated, you endured a great fight of afflictions. 33 And on the one hand indeed, by reproaches and tribulations, were made a gazingstock; and on the other, became companions of them that were used in such sort. 34 For you both had compassion on them that were in bands, and took with joy the being stripped of your own goods, knowing that you have a better and a lasting substance. 35 Do not therefore lose your confidence, which hath a great reward. 36 For patience is necessary for you; that, doing the will of God, you may receive the promise. 37 For yet a little and a very little while, and he that is to come, will come, and will not delay. 38 But my just man liveth by faith; but if he withdraw himself, he shall not please my soul. 39 But we are not the children of withdrawing unto perdition, but of faith to the saving of the soul.
1 Now faith is the substance of things to be hoped for, the evidence of things that appear not. 2 For by this the ancients obtained a testimony. 3 By faith we understand that the world was framed by the word of God; that from invisible things visible things might be made. 4 By faith Abel offered to God a sacrifice exceeding that of Cain, by which he obtained a testimony that he was just, God giving testimony to his gifts; and by it he being dead yet speaketh. 5 By faith Henoch was translated, that he should not see death; and he was not found, because God had translated him: for before his translation he had testimony that he pleased God. 6 But without faith it is impossible to please God. For he that cometh to God, must believe that he is, and is a rewarder to them that seek him. 7 By faith Noe, having received an answer concerning those things which as yet were not seen, moved with fear, framed the ark for the saving of his house, by the which he condemned the world; and was instituted heir of the justice which is by faith. 8 By faith he that is called Abraham, obeyed to go out into a place which he was to receive for an inheritance; and he went out, not knowing whither he went. 9 By faith he abode in the land, dwelling in cottages, with Isaac and Jacob, the co-heirs of the same promise. 10 For he looked for a city that hath foundations; whose builder and maker is God. 11 By faith also Sara herself, being barren, received strength to conceive seed, even past the time of age; because she believed that he was faithful who had promised, 12 For which cause there sprung even from one (and him as good as dead) as the stars of heaven in multitude, and as the sand which is by the sea shore innumerable. 13 All these died according to faith, not having received the promises, but beholding them afar off, and saluting them, and confessing that they are pilgrims and strangers on the earth. 14 For they that say these things, do signify that they seek a country. 15 And truly if they had been mindful of that from whence they came out, they had doubtless time to return. 16 But now they desire a better, that is to say, a heavenly country. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God; for he hath prepared for them a city. 17 By faith Abraham, when he was tried, offered Isaac: and he that had received the promises, offered up his only begotten son; 18 (To whom it was said: In Isaac shall thy seed be called.) 19 Accounting that God is able to raise up even from the dead. Whereupon also he received him for a parable. 20 By faith also of things to come, Isaac blessed Jacob and Esau. 21 By faith Jacob dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph, and adored the top of his rod. 22 By faith Joseph, when he was dying, made mention of the going out of the children of Israel; and gave commandment concerning his bones. 23 By faith Moses, when he was born, was hid three months by his parents; because they saw he was a comely babe, and they feared not the king's edict. 24 By faith Moses, when he was grown up, denied himself to be the son of Pharao's daughter; 25 Rather choosing to be afflicted with the people of God, than to have the pleasure of sin for a time, 26 Esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the treasure of the Egyptians. For he looked unto the reward. 27 By faith he left Egypt, not fearing the fierceness of the king: for he endured as seeing him that is invisible. 28 By faith he celebrated the pasch, and the shedding of the blood...
Kenyon College Leaf 14 Verso
effusiónem: ne qui vastábat primitíva, tángeret eos. Fide transiérunt mare Rubrum tamquam per áridam terram: quod expérti Ægýptii, devoráti sunt. Fide muri Jéricho corruérunt, circúitu diérum septem. Fide Rahab méretrix non périit cum incrédulis, excípiens exploratóres cum pace. Et quid adhuc dicam? defíciet enim me tempus enarrántem de Gédeon, Barac, Samson, Jephte, David, Sámuel, et prophétis: qui per fidem vicérunt regna, operáti sunt justítiam, adépti sunt repromissiónes, obturavérunt ora leónum, extinxérunt ímpetum ignis, effugérunt áciem gládii, convaluérunt de infirmitáte, fortes facti sunt in bello, castra vertérunt exterórum: accepérunt mulíeres de resurrectióne mórtuos suos: álii autem disténti sunt non suscipiéntes redemptiónem ut meliórem invenírent resurrectiónem. Álii vero ludíbria, et vérbera expérti, ínsuper et víncula, et cárceres: lapidáti sunt, secti sunt, tentáti sunt, in occisióne gládii mórtui sunt, circuiérunt in melótis, in péllibus caprínis, egéntes, angustiáti, afflícti: quibus dignus non erat mundus: in solitudínibus errántes, in móntibus, in spelúncis, et in cavérnis terræ. Et hi omnes testimónio fídei probáti, non accepérunt repromissiónem, Deo pro nobis mélius áliquid providénte, ut non sine nobis consummaréntur. XII. Ideóque et nos tantam habéntes impósitam nubem téstium, deponéntes omne pondus, et circúmstans nos peccátum, per patiéntiam currámus ad propósitum nobis certámen: aspiciéntes in auctórem fídei, et consummatórem Jesum, qui propósito sibi gáudio sustínuit crucem, confusióne contémpta, atque in déxtera sedis Dei sedet. Recogitáte enim eum qui talem sustínuit a peccatóribus advérsum semetípsum contradictiónem: ut ne fatigémini, ánimis vestris deficiéntes. Nondum enim usque ad sánguinem restitístis, advérsus peccátum repugnántes: et oblíti estis consolatiónis, quæ vobis tamquam fíliis lóquitur, dicens: Fili mi, noli neglígere disciplínam Dómini: neque fatígeris dum ab eo argúeris. Quem enim díligit Dóminus, castígat: flagéllat autem omnem fílium, quem récipit. In disciplína perseveráte. Tamquam fíliis vobis offert se Deus: quis enim fílius, quem non córripit pater? quod si extra disciplínam estis, cujus partícipes facti sunt omnes: ergo adúlteri, et non fílii estis. Deínde patres quidem carnis nostræ, eruditóres habúimus, et reverebámur eos, non multo magis obtemperábimus Patri spirítuum, et vivémus? Et
illi quidem in témpore paucórum diérum, secúndum voluntátem suam erudiébant nos: hic autem ad id quod útile est in recipiéndo sanctificatiónem ejus. Omnis autem disciplína in præsénti quidem vidétur non esse gáudii, sed mœróris: póstea autem fructum pacatíssimum exercitátis per eam, reddet justítiæ. Propter quod remíssas manus, et solúta génua erígite, et gressus rectos fácite pédibus vestris: ut non cláudicans quis erret, magis autem sanétur. Pacem sequímini cum ómnibus, et sanctimóniam, sine qua nemo vidébit Deum: contemplántes nequis desit grátiæ Dei: ne qua radix amaritúdinis sursum gérminans impédiat, et per illam inquinéntur multi. Ne quis fornicátor, aut profánus ut Ésau: qui propter unam escam véndidit primitíva sua: scitóte enim quóniam et póstea cúpiens hæreditáre benedictiónem, reprobátus est: non enim invénit pœniténtiæ locum, quamquam cum lácrimis inquisísset eam. Non enim accessístis ad tractábilem montem, et accensíbilem ignem, et túrbinem, et calíginem, et procéllam, et tubæ sonum, et vocem verbórum, quam qui audiérunt, excusavérunt se, ne eis fíeret verbum. Non enim portábant quod dicebátur: Et si béstia tetígerit montem, lapidábitur. Et ita terríbile erat quod videbátur. Móyses dixit: Extérritus sum, et tremebúndus. Sed accessístis ad Sion montem, et civitátem Dei vivéntis, Jerúsalem cæléstem, et multórum míllium angelórum frequéntiam, et ecclésiam primitivórum, qui conscrípti sunt in cælis, et júdicem ómnium Deum, et spíritus justórum perfectórum, et testaménti novi mediatórem Jesum, et sánguinis aspersiónem mélius loquéntem quam Abel. Vidéte ne recusétis loquéntem. Si enim illi non effugérunt, recusántes eum, qui super terram loquebátur: multo magis nos, qui de cælis loquéntem nobis avértimus. Cujus vox movit terram tunc: nunc autem repromíttit, dicens: Adhuc semel, et ego movébo non solum terram, sed et cælum. Quod autem, Adhuc semel, dicit: declárat mobílium translatiónem tamquam factórum, ut máneant ea quæ sunt immobília. Ítaque regnum immóbile suscipiéntes, habémus grátiam: per quam serviámus placéntes Deo, cum metu et reveréntia. Étenim Deus noster ignis consúmens est. XIII. Cáritas fraternitátis máneat in vobis, et hospitalitátem nolíte oblivísci: per hanc enim latuérunt quidam, ángelis hospítio recéptis. Mementóte vinctórum, tamquam simul vincti: et laborántium, tamquam et ipsi in córpore morántes. Honorábile conu-
...shedding of the blood; that he, who destroyed the firstborn, might not touch them. 29 By faith they passed through the Red Sea, as by dry land: which the Egyptians attempting, were swallowed up. 30 By faith the walls of Jericho fell down, by the going round them seven days. 31 By faith Rahab the harlot perished not with the unbelievers, receiving the spies with peace. 32 And what shall I yet say? For the time would fail me to tell of Gedeon, Barac, Samson, Jephthe, David, Samuel, and the prophets: 33 Who by faith conquered kingdoms, wrought justice, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, 34 Quenched the violence of fire, escaped the edge of the sword, recovered strength from weakness, became valiant in battle, put to flight the armies of foreigners: 35 Women received their dead raised to life again. But others were racked, not accepting deliverance, that they might find a better resurrection. 36 And others had trial of mockeries and stripes, moreover also of bands and prisons. 37 They were stoned, they were cut asunder, they were tempted, they were put to death by the sword, they wandered about in sheepskins, in goatskins, being in want, distressed, afflicted: 38 Of whom the world was not worthy; wandering in deserts, in mountains, and in dens, and in caves of the earth. 39 And all these being approved by the testimony of faith, received not the promise; 40 God providing some better thing for us, that they should not be perfected without us.
1 And therefore we also having so great a cloud of witnesses over our head, laying aside every weight and sin which surrounds us, let us run by patience to the fight proposed to us: 2 Looking on Jesus, the author and finisher of faith, who having joy set before him, endured the cross, despising the shame, and now sitteth on the right hand of the throne of God. 3 For think diligently upon him that endured such opposition from sinners against himself; that you be not wearied, fainting in your minds. 4 For you have not yet resisted unto blood, striving against sin: 5 And you have forgotten the consolation, which speaketh to you, as unto children, saying: My son, neglect not the discipline of the Lord; neither be thou wearied whilst thou art rebuked by him. 6 For whom the Lord loveth, he chastiseth; and he scourgeth every son whom he receiveth. 7 Persevere under discipline. God dealeth with you as with his sons; for what son is there, whom the father doth not correct? 8 But if you be without chastisement, whereof all are made partakers, then are you bastards, and not sons. 9 Moreover we have had fathers of our flesh, for instructors, and we reverenced them: shall we not much more obey the Father of spirits, and live? 10 And they indeed for a few days, according to their own pleasure, instructed us: but he, for our profit, that we might receive his sanctification. 11 Now all chastisement for the present indeed seemeth not to bring with it joy, but sorrow: but afterwards it will yield, to them that are exercised by it, the most peaceable fruit of justice. 12 Wherefore lift up the hands which hang down, and the feeble knees, 13 And make straight steps with your feet: that no one, halting, may go out of the way; but rather be healed. 14 Follow peace with all men, and holiness: without which no man shall see God. 15 Looking diligently, lest any man be wanting to the grace of God; lest any root of bitterness springing up do hinder, and by it many be defiled. 16 Lest there be any fornicator, or profane person, as Esau; who for one mess, sold his first birthright. 17 For know ye that afterwards, when he desired to inherit the benediction, he was rejected; for he found no place of repentance, although with tears he had sought it. 18 For you are not come to a mountain that might be touched, and a burning fire, and a whirlwind, and darkness, and storm, 19 And the sound of a trumpet, and the voice of words, which they that heard excused themselves, that the word might not be spoken to them: 20 For they did not endure that which was said: And if so much as a beast shall touch the mount, it shall be stoned. 21 And so terrible was that which was seen, Moses said: I am frighted, and tremble. 22 But you are come to mount Sion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to the company of many thousands of angels, 23 And to the church of the firstborn, who are written in the heavens, and to God the judge of all, and to the spirits of the just made perfect, 24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new testament, and to the sprinkling of blood which speaketh better than that of Abel. 25 See that you refuse him not that speaketh. For if they escaped not who refused him that spoke upon the earth, much more shall not we, that turn away from him that speaketh to us from heaven. 26 Whose voice then moved the earth; but now he promiseth, saying: Yet once more, and I will move not only the earth, but heaven also. 27 And in that he saith, Yet once more, he signifieth the translation of the moveable things as made, that those things may remain which are immoveable. 28 Therefore receiving an immoveable kingdom, we have grace; whereby let us serve, pleasing God, with fear and reverence. 29 For our God is a consuming fire.
1 Let the charity of the brotherhood abide in you. 2 And hospitality do not forget; for by this some, being not aware of it, have entertained angels. 3 Remember them that are in bands, as if you were bound with them; and them that labour, as being yourselves also in the body. 4 Marriage honourable in all...