Kent State University Leaf 14
This leaf comes from a French Bible of the late thirteenth century. The vellum is thin, white, and supple with minimal yellowing, measuring a substantial 40.5 x 27 cm. Lining is done in light ink or lead, and the script is an angular gothic. The bulk of the text is in brown ink, with red, blue, coral, white, and beige for the decorations. This leaf is heavily illuminated and decorated, including elaborate initials and foliage, highlighted book names and chapter numbers, and extensive use of gold leaf. But while the decoration is exceptional, we see on these leaves an unusual number of scribal corrections (especially erasures and strikethroughs). See Denison University Leaf 14 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: Zachariah 7:7-9:5 (recto) and 9:5-11:10 (verso).
Kent State University Leaf 14 Recto
et in campéstribus habitarétur? Et factum est verbum Dómini ad Zacharíam, dicens: Hæc ait Dóminus exercítuum, dicens: Judícium verum judicáte, et misericórdiam et miseratiónes fácite, unusquísque cum fratre suo. Et víduam, et pupíllum, et ádvenam, et páuperem nolíte calumniári: et malum vir fratri suo non cógitet in corde suo. Et noluérunt atténdere, et avertérunt scápulam recedéntem, et aures suas aggravavérunt ne audírent. Et cor suum posuérunt ut adamántem, ne audírent legem, et verba quæ misit Dóminus exercítuum in spíritu suo per manum prophetárum priórum: et facta est indignátio magna a Dómino exercítuum. Et factum est sicut locútus est, et non audiérunt: sic clamábunt et non exáudiam, dicit Dóminus exercítuum. Et dispérsi eos per ómnia regna quæ nésciunt: et terra desoláta est ab eis, eo quod non esset tránsiens et revértens: et posuérunt terram desiderábilem in desértum. VIII. Et factum est verbum Dómini exercítuum, dicens: Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: Zelátus sum Sion zelo magno, et indignatióne magna zelátus sum eam. Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: Revérsus sum ad Sion, et habitábo in médio Jerúsalem: et vocábitur Jerúsalem cívitas veritátis, et mons Dómini exercítuum mons sanctificátus. Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: Adhuc habitábunt senes et anus in platéis Jerúsalem, et viri báculus in manu ejus præ multitúdine diérum. Et platéæ civitátis complebúntur infántibus et puéllis, ludéntibus in platéis ejus. Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: Si vidébitur diffícile in óculis reliquiárum pópuli hujus in diébus illis, numquid in óculis meis diffícile erit? dicit Dóminus exercítuum. Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: Ecce ego salvábo pópulum meum de terra oriéntis et de terra occásus solis. Et addúcam eos, et habitábunt in médio Jerúsalem: et erunt mihi in pópulum, et ego ero eis in Deum, in veritáte et in justítia. Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: Conforténtur manus vestræ, qui audítis in his diébus sermónes istos per os prophetárum, in die qua fundáta est domus Dómini exercítuum, ut templum ædificarétur. Síquidem ante dies illos merces hóminum non erat, nec merces jumentórum erat: neque introëúnti, neque exeúnti erat pax præ tribulatióne: et dimísi omnes hómines, unumquémque contra próximum suum. Nunc autem non juxta dies prióres ego fáci-
-am relíquiis pópuli hujus, dicit Dóminus exercítuum, sed semen pacis erit: vínea dabit fructum suum, et terra dabit germen suum, et cæli dabunt rorem suum: et possidére fáciam relíquias pópuli hujus univérsa hæc. Et erit: sicut erátis maledíctio in géntibus, domus Juda et domus Israël, sic salvábo vos, et éritis benedíctio. Nolíte timére; conforténtur manus vestræ. Quia hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: Sicut cogitávi ut afflígerem vos, cum ad iracúndiam provocássent patres vestri me, dicit Dóminus, et non sum misértus: sic convérsus cogitávi, in diébus istis, ut benefáciam dómui Juda et Jerúsalem. Nolíte timére. Hæc sunt ergo verba quæ faciétis: loquímini veritátem unusquísque cum próximo suo: veritátem et judícium pacis judicáte in portis vestris. Et unusquísque malum contra amícum suum ne cogitétis in córdibus vestris, et juraméntum mendax ne diligátis: ómnia enim hæc sunt quæ odi, dicit Dóminus. Et factum est verbum Dómini exercítuum ad me, dicens: Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: Jejúnium quarti, et jejúnium quinti, et jejúnium séptimi, et jejúnium décimi erit dómui Juda in gáudium et lætítiam et in solemnitátes præcláras. Veritátem tantum et pacem dilígite. Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum, úsquequo véniant pópuli et hábitent in civitátibus multis: et vadant habitatóres, unus ad álterum, dicéntes: Eámus, et deprecémur fáciem Dómini, et quærámus Dóminum exercítuum: vadam étiam ego. Et vénient pópuli multi, et gentes robústæ, ad quæréndum Dóminum exercítuum in Jerúsalem, et deprecándam fáciem Dómini. Hæc dicit Dóminus exercítuum: In diébus illis, in quibus apprehéndent decem hómines ex ómnibus linguis géntium, et apprehéndent fímbriam viri Judaei, dicéntes: Íbimus vobíscum : audívimus enim quóniam Deus vobíscum est. IX. Onus verbi Dómini in terra Hadrach et Damásci requiéi ejus, quia Dómini est óculus hóminis et ómnium tríbuum Israël. Emath quoque in términis ejus, et Tyrus, et Sidon: assumpsérunt quippe sibi sapiéntiam valde. Et ædificávit Tyrus munitiónem suam, et coacervávit argéntum quasi humum, et aurum ut lutum plateárum. Ecce Dóminus possidébit eam: et percútiet in mari fortitúdinem ejus, et hæc igni devorábitur. Vidébit Ascálon, et timébit, et Gaza, et dolébit nimis, et Ac-
...and in the plain? 8 And the word of the Lord came to Zacharias, saying: 9 Thus saith the Lord of hosts, saying: Judge ye true judgment, and shew ye mercy and compassion every man to his brother. 10 And oppress not the widow, and the fatherless, and the stranger, and the poor: and let not a man devise evil in his heart against his brother. 11 But they would not hearken, and they turned away the shoulder to depart: and they stopped their ears, not to hear. 12 And they made their heart as the adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the Lord of hosts sent in his spirit by the hand of the former prophets: so a great indignation came from the Lord of hosts. 13 And it came to pass that as he spoke, and they heard not: so shall they cry, and I will not hear, saith the Lord of hosts. 14 And I dispersed them throughout all kingdoms, which they know not: and the land was left desolate behind them, so that no man passed through or returned: and they changed the delightful land into a wilderness.
1 And the word of the Lord of hosts came to me, saying: 2 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: I have been jealous for Sion with a great jealousy, and with a great indignation have I been jealous for her. 3 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: I am returned to Sion, and I will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem: and Jerusalem shall be called The city of truth, and the mountain of the Lord of hosts, The sanctified mountain. 4 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: There shall yet old men and old women dwell in the streets of Jerusalem: and every man with his staff in his hand through multitude of days. 5 And the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls, playing in the streets thereof. 6 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: If it seem hard in the eyes of the remnant of this people in those days: shall it be hard in my eyes, saith the Lord of hosts? 7 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: Behold I will save my people from the land of the east, and from the land of the going down of the sun. 8 And I will bring them, and they shall dwell in the midst of Jerusalem: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God in truth and in justice. 9 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: Let your hands be strengthened, you that hear in these days these words by the mouth of the prophets, in the day that the house of the Lord of hosts was founded, that the temple might be built. 10 For before those days there was no hire for men, neither was there hire for beasts, neither was there peace to him that came in, nor to him that went out, because of the tribulation: and I let all men go every one against his neighbour. 11 But now I will not deal with the remnant of this people according to the former days, saith the Lord of hosts. 12 But there shall be the seed of peace: the vine shall yield her fruit, and the earth shall give her increase, and the heavens shall give their dew: and I will cause the remnant of this people to possess all these things. 13 And it shall come to pass, that as you were a curse among the Gentiles, O house of Juda, and house of Israel: so will I save you, and you shall be a blessing: fear not, let your hands be strengthened. 14 For thus saith the Lord of hosts: As I purposed to afflict you, when your fathers had provoked me to wrath, saith the Lord, 15 And I had no mercy: so turning again I have thought in these days to do good to the house of Juda, and Jerusalem: fear not. 16 These then are the things, which you shall do: Speak ye truth every one to his neighbour: judge ye truth and judgment of peace in your gates. 17 And let none of you imagine evil in your hearts against his friend: and love not a false oath: for all these are the things that I hate, saith the Lord. 18 And the word of the Lord of hosts came to me, saying: 19 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth shall be to the house of Juda, joy, and gladness, and great solemnities: only love ye truth and peace. 20 Thus saith the Lord of hosts, until people come, and dwell in many cities, 21 And the inhabitants go one to another, saying: Let us go, and entreat the face of the Lord, and let us seek the Lord of hosts: I also will go. 22 And many peoples, and strong nations shall come to seek the Lord of hosts in Jerusalem, and to entreat the face of the Lord. 23 Thus saith the Lord of hosts: In those days, wherein ten men of all languages of the Gentiles shall take hold, and shall hold fast the skirt of one that is a Jew, saying: We will go with you: for we have heard that God is with you.
1 The burden of the word of the Lord in the land of Hadrach, and of Damascus the rest thereof: for the eye of man, and of all the tribes of Israel is the Lord's. 2 Emath also in the borders thereof, and Tyre, and Sidon: for they have taken to themselves to be exceeding wise. 3 And Tyre hath built herself a strong hold, and heaped together silver as earth, and gold as the mire of the streets. 4 Behold the Lord shall possess her, and shall strike her strength in the sea, and she shall be devoured with fire. 5 Ascalon shall see, and shall fear, and Gaza, and shall be very sorrowful: and Accaron...
Kent State University Leaf 14 Verso
-caron: quóniam confúsa est spes ejus: et períbit rex de Gaza, et Ascálon non habitábitur. Et sedébit separátor in Azóto, et dispérdam supérbiam Philisthinórum. Et áuferam sánguinem ejus de ore ejus, et abominatiónes ejus de médio déntium ejus: et relinquétur étiam ipse Deo nostro, et erit quasi dux in Juda, et Accáron quasi Jebusaeus. Et circúmdabo domum meam ex his qui mílitant mihi eúntes et reverténtes: et non transíbit super eos ultra exáctor, quia nunc vidi in óculis meis. Exsúlta satis, fília Sion; júbila, fília Jerúsalem: ecce rex tuus véniet tibi justus, et salvátor: ipse pauper, et ascéndens super ásinam et super pullum fílium ásinæ. Et dispérdam quadrígam ex Éphraim, et equum de Jerúsalem, et dissipábitur arcus belli: et loquétur pacem géntibus, et potéstas ejus a mari usque ad mare, et a flumínibus usque ad fines terræ. Tu quoque in sánguine testaménti tui emisísti vinctos tuos de lacu in quo non est aqua. Convertímini ad munitiónem, vincti spei: hódie quoque annúntians duplícia reddam tibi. Quóniam exténdi mihi Judam quasi arcum: implévi Éphraim: et suscitábo fílios tuos, Sion, super fílios tuos, Graecia: et ponam te quasi gládium fórtium. Et Dóminus Deus super eos vidébitur, et exíbit ut fulgur jáculum ejus: et Dóminus Deus in tuba canet, et vadet in túrbine austri. Dóminus exercítuum próteget eos: et devorábunt, et subjícient lapídibus fundæ: et bibéntes inebriabúntur quasi a vino, et replebúntur ut phíalæ, et quasi córnua altáris. Et salvábit eos Dóminus Deus eórum in die illa, ut gregem pópuli sui, quia lápides sancti elevabúntur super terram ejus. Quid enim bonum ejus est, et quid pulchrum ejus, nisi fruméntum electórum, et vinum gérminans vírgines? X. Pétite a Dómino plúviam in témpore serótino, et Dóminus fáciet nives: et plúviam imbris dabit eis, síngulis herbam in agro. Quia simulácra locúta sunt inútile,et divíni vidérunt mendácium: et somniatóres locúti sunt frustra, vane consolabántur: idcírco abdúcti sunt quasi grex: affligéntur, quia non est eis pastor. Super pastóres irátus est furor meus, et super hircos visitábo: quia visitávit Dóminus exercítuum gregem suum, domum Juda, et pósuit eos quasi equum glóriæ suæ in bello. Ex ipso ángulus, ex ipso paxíllus, ex ipso arcus praelii, ex ipso egrediétur omnis exáctor simul. Et erunt quasi fortes conculcántes lutum
viárum in praelio, et bellábunt, quia Dóminus cum eis: et confundéntur ascensóres equórum. Et confortábo domum Juda, et domum Joseph salvábo: et convértam eos, quia miserébor eórum: et erunt sicut fuérunt quando non projéceram eos: ego enim Dóminus Deus eórum, et exáudiam eos. Et erunt quasi fortes Éphraim, et lætábitur cor eórum quasi a vino: et fílii eórum vidébunt, et lætabúntur, et exsultábit cor eórum in Dómino. Sibilábo eis, et congregábo illos, quia redémi eos: et multiplicábo eos sicut ante fúerant multiplicáti. Et seminábo eos in pópulis, et de longe recordabúntur mei: et vivent cum fíliis suis, et reverténtur. Et redúcam eos de terra Ægýpti, et de Assýriis congregábo eos, et ad terram Gálaad et Líbani addúcam eos, et non inveniétur eis locus: et transíbit in maris freto, et percútiet in mari fluctus, et confundéntur ómnia profúnda flúminis: et humiliábitur supérbia Assur, et sceptrum Ægýpti recédet. Confortábo eos in Dómino, et in nómine ejus ambulábunt, dicit Dóminus. XI. Áperi, Líbane, portas tuas, et cómedat ignis cedros tuas. Úlula, abíes, quia cécidit cedrus, quóniam magnífici vastáti sunt: ululáte, quercus Basan, quóniam succísus est saltus munítus. Vox ululátus pastórum, quia vastáta est magnificéntia eórum: vox rúgitus leónum, quóniam vastáta est supérbia Jordánis. Hæc dicit Dóminus Deus meus: Pasce pécora occisiónis, quæ qui posséderant accidébant, et non dolébant, et vendébant ea, dicéntes: Benedíctus Dóminus! dívites facti sumus: et pastóres eórum non parcébant eis. Et ego non parcam ultra super habitántes terram, dicit Dóminus: ecce ego tradam hómines, unumquémque in manu próximi sui, et in manu regis sui: et concídent terram, et non éruam de manu eórum. Et pascam pecus occisiónis propter hoc, o páuperes gregis! et assúmpsi mihi duas virgas: unam vocávi Decórem, et álteram vocávi Funículum: et pavi gregem. Et succídi tres pastóres in mense uno, et contrácta est ánima mea in eis, síquidem et ánima eórum variávit in me. Et dixi: Non pascam vos: quod móritur, moriátur, et quod succíditur, succidátur: et réliqui dévorent unusquísque carnem próximi sui. Et tuli virgam meam quæ vocabátur Decus, et abscídi eam, ut írritum fácerem fœdus meum quod percússi cum ómnibus
...Accaron, because her hope is confounded: and the king shall perish from Gaza, and Ascalon shall not be inhabited. 6 And the divider shall sit in Azotus, and I will destroy the pride of the Philistines. 7 And I will take away his blood out of his mouth, and his abominations from between his teeth: and even he shall be left to our God, and he shall be as a governor in Juda, and Accaron as a Jebusite. 8 And I will encompass my house with them that serve me in war, going and returning, and the oppressor shall no more pass through them: for now I have seen with my eyes. 9 Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion, shout for joy, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold thy king will come to thee, the just and saviour: he is poor, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass. 10 And I will destroy the chariot out of Ephraim, and the horse out of Jerusalem, and the bow for war shall be broken: and he shall speak peace to the Gentiles, and his power shall be from sea to sea, and from the rivers even to the end of the earth. 11 Thou also by the blood of thy testament hast sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit, wherein is no water. 12 Return to the strong hold, ye prisoners of hope, I will render thee double as I declare to day. 13 Because I have bent Juda for me as a bow, I have filled Ephraim: and I will raise up thy sons, O Sion, above thy sons, O Greece, and I will make thee as the sword of the mighty. 14 And the Lord God shall be seen over them, and his dart shall go forth as lightning: and the Lord God will sound the trumpet, and go in the whirlwind of the south. 15 The Lord of hosts will protect them: and they shall devour, and subdue with the stones of the sling: and drinking they shall be inebriated as it were with wine, and they shall be filled as bowls, and as the horns of the altar. 16 And the Lord their God will save them in that day, as the flock of his people: for holy stones shall be lifted up over his land. 17 For what is the good thing of him, and what is his beautiful thing, but the corn of the elect, and wine springing forth virgins?
1 Ask ye of the Lord rain in the latter season, and the Lord will make snows, and will give them showers of rain, to every one grass in the field. 2 For the idols have spoken what was unprofitable, and the diviners have seen a lie, and the dreamers have spoken vanity: they comforted in vain: therefore they were led away as a flock: they shall be afflicted, because they have no shepherd. 3 My wrath is kindled against the shepherds, and I will visit upon the buck goats: for the Lord of hosts hath visited his flock, the house of Juda, and hath made them as the horse of his glory in the battle. 4 Out of him shall come forth the corner, out of him the pin, out of him the bow of battle, out of him every exacter together. 5 And they shall be as mighty men, treading under foot the mire of the ways in battle: and they shall fight, because the Lord is with them, and the riders of horses shall be confounded. 6 And I will strengthen the house of Juda, and save the house of Joseph: and I will bring them back again, because I will have mercy on them: and they shall be as they were when I had cast them off, for I am the Lord their God, and will hear them. 7 And they shall be as the valiant men of Ephraim, and their heart shall rejoice as through wine: and their children shall see, and shall rejoice, and their heart shall be joyful in the Lord. 8 I will whistle for them, and I will gather them together, because I have redeemed them: and I will multiply them as they were multiplied before. 9 And I will sow them among peoples: and from afar they shall remember me: and they shall live with their children, and shall return. 10 And I will bring them back out of the land of Egypt, and will gather them from among the Assyrians: and will bring them to the land of Galaad, and Libanus, and place shall not be found for them. 11 And he shall pass over the strait of the sea, and shall strike the waves in the sea, and all the depths of the river shall be confounded, and the pride of Assyria shall be humbled, and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart. 12 I will strengthen them in the Lord, and they shall walk in his name, saith the Lord.
1 Open thy gates, O Libanus, and let fire devour thy cedars. 2 Howl, thou fir tree, for the cedar is fallen, for the mighty are laid waste: howl, ye oaks of Basan, because the fenced forest is cut down. 3 The voice of the howling of the shepherds, because their glory is laid waste: the voice of the roaring of the lions, because the pride of the Jordan is spoiled. 4 Thus saith the Lord my God: Feed the flock of the slaughter, 5 Which they that possessed, slew, and repented not, and they sold them, saying: Blessed be the Lord, we are become rich: and their shepherds spared them not. 6 And I will no more spare the inhabitants of the land, saith the Lord: behold I will deliver the men, every one into his neighbour's hand, and into the hand of his king: and they shall destroy the land, and I will not deliver it out of their hand. 7 And I will feed the flock of slaughter for this, O ye poor of the flock. And I took unto me two rods, one I called Beauty, and the other I called a Cord, and I fed the flock. 8 And I cut off three shepherds in one month, and my soul was straitened in their regard: for their soul also varied in my regard. 9 And I said: I will not feed you: that which dieth, let it die: and that which is cut off, let it be cut off: and let the rest devour every one the flesh of his neighbour. 10 And I took my rod that was called Beauty, and I cut it asunder to make void my covenant, which I had made with all...