Denison University Leaf 19
Otto Ege provided the following description for leaves from this manuscript:
Vulgate Bible (Biblia Sacra Latina, Versio Vulgata). Italy; Early 14th Century. Latin Text; Transitional Rotunda Script.
At this period, the St. Jerome Bible was not transcribed as often as one would expect in the country of its origin and the very land which held the seat of the Roman Church. During the greater part of the 13th century, while the popes were greatly concerned with gaining political power, art was at a low ebb in Italy, and religious manuscripts were comparatively few and far inferior to the work of monastic scribes in Germany, France, and England. But with the great wealth accumulating in Italy during the 14th century through commerce and the Crusades, this country soon surpassed in richness as well as in numbers the manuscript output of all other nationalities.
The rich black lettering of this manuscript is in the transitional rotunda script and is excecuted with skill and beauty. It is supplemented by initial letters in rich ultramarine blue and deep cinnabar (vermilion), which colors are reflected in the ornament of the romanesque capitals. All of these factors combine to indicate that the manuscript was executed in central Italy, possibly at Florence.
Size: 23.5 x 17 cm
Observations: The leaves from this bible provide us with clear insight into Otto Ege's selection method. All the Leaf 19s we have seen contain a large beautiful initial letter denoting the start of a new book of the Bible--thus we can expect that all of the rest of the specimens of Leaf 19 in the Ege portfolios are leaves that contain the ending of one Biblical book and the beginning of another, and we can assume that Ege chose them for the sake of the single large decorated initial. Apart from the arresting initial, the leaves contain red and blue ink scrollwork, with headers in alternating red and blue. Missing pieces of text (sometimes fairly lengthy ones) have attention drawn to them by being outlined in red.
Text: 3 Esdras 9:14-56 and Jerome's prologue to Tobit (recto); Jerome's prologue and Tobit 1:1-2:13 (verso). Translation of the prologue is by Kevin P. Edgecomb.
Denison University Leaf 19 Recto
cooperati sunt cum illis. Et fecerunt secundum haec omnia universi qui erant ex captivitate. Et elegit sibi viros Ezras sacerdos, principes magnos de patribus eorum secundum nomina, et consederunt novilunio mensis decimi examinare negotium istud. Et determinatum est de viris qui habebant uxores alienigenas usque ad neomenia primi mensis. Et inventi sunt ex sacerdotibus commixti qui habebant alienigenas uxores: Ex filiis Iesu filii Iosedech et fratribus eius Maseas et Eliezerus et Ioribus et Ioadeus. Et iniecerunt manus, ut expellerent uxores suas, et ad litandum in exoratione arietem pro ignorantia sua. Et ex filiis Emmeri Masseas et Esses et Ieel et Azarias. Et ex filiis Fosor Elionia, Assias, Ismahelus et Nathanaelus, Ioceddeus et Talsas. Et ex Levitis Iozabdus et Semeis et Colius et Calitas et Fatheas et Coluas et Elionas. Ex sacris cantoribus Eliasubus Zaccurus. Ex ostiariis Sallumus et Tolbanes. Et ex Israhel: ex filiis Foroos Ieremias et Ieddias et Melchias et Mielus et Eleazarus et Iemmebias et Baninas. Et ex filiis Iolam Mamthanias et Zaccharias, Iezrelus et Iobdius et Herimoth et Helias. Et ex filiis Zathom Eliadas et Eliasimus et Othias et Larimoth et Zabdus et Zebedias. Et ex filiis Bebe Iohannes et Ananias et Zabdias et Emethis. Et ex filiis Banni Olamus et Malluchus et Ieddaeus et Iasub et Asubus et Hierimoth. Et ex filiis Addin Naathus et Moosias et Calchurus et Raanas et Baseas, Mathathias et Beseel et Bonnus et Manasses. Et ex filiis Nuae Noneas et Aseas et Melchias et Sameas et Simon, Beniamin et Malchus et Marras. Et ex filiis Asom Carianeus, Mathathias et Bannus et Elifalat et Manasses et Semei. Et ex filiis Banni Ieremias et Moodias et Abramus et Ioel et Baneas et Pelias et Ionas et Marimoth et Eliasib et Mathaneus et Eliasis et Zorisas et Diaelus et Samedius et Sambris et Iosephus. Et ex filiis Nobaei Idaelus et Mathathias et Sabadus et Zetheda Sednu et Iessei Baneas. Omnes isti coniunxerunt sibi uxores alienigenas, et dimiserunt eas cum filiis. Et inhabitaverunt sacerdotes et Levitae et qui erant ex Israhel in Hierusalem et in tota regione una novilunio mensis septimi, et erant filii Israhel in commorationibus suis. Et congregata est omnis multitudo simul in aream
quae est ab oriente portae sacrae. Et dixerunt Ezrae pontifici et lectori, ut adferret legem Moysi quae tradita est a Domino Deo Israhel. Et adtulit Ezras pontifex legem omni multitudini eorum a viro usque ad mulierem et omnibus sacerdotibus, audire legem novilunio mensis septimi. Et legebat in area quae est ante sacram portam templi a prima luce usque ad vesperam coram viris et mulieribus, et dederunt omnes sensum ad legem. Et stetit Ezras sacerdos et lector legis super ligneum tribunal quod fabricatum erat. Et steterunt ad eum Mathathias, Samus, Ananias, Azarias, Urias, Ezechias, et Balsamus ad dexteram, et ad sinistram Faldeus, Misael, Malachias, Abustassabus, Nabadias et Zaccharias et adsumpsit Ezras librum coram omni multitudine praesidebat enim in gloria in conspectu omnium. Et cum absolvisset legem, omnes recti steterunt. et benedixit Ezras Dominum Deum altissimum, Deum Sabaoth omnipotentem. Et respondit omnis populus: amen. Et elevatis susum manibus procidentes in terram adoraverunt Dominum. Iesus et Banaeus et Sarabias et Iadinus et Accubus et Sabbateus et Calites et Azarias et Ioradus et Ananias et Filias, Levitae qui docebant legem Domini et in multitudine legebant legem Domini, et praeferebant singuli eos qui intellegebant lectionem. et dixit Attarates Ezrae pontifici et lectori et Levitis qui docebant multitudinem dicens: dies hic est sanctus Domino. Et omnes flebant, cum audissent legem. Digressi ergo manducate pinguissima quaeque et bibite dulcissima quaeque et mittite munera his qui non habent. Sanctus est enim dies Domini, et nolite maesti esse, Dominus enim clarificavit vos. Et Levitae denuntiabant in publico omnibus dicentes: dies hic sanctus est, nolite maesti esse. Et abierunt omnes manducare et bibere et epulari et dare munera his qui non habent ut epulentur. Magnifice enim sunt exaltati verbis quibus edocti sunt. Et congregati sunt universi in Hierusalem, celebrare laetitiam secundum testamentum Domini Dei Israhel.
Explicit tertium liber Esdre. Incipit prologo sancti Ieronimi presbyterii in librum Tobie.
Cromatio et Heliodoro episcopis Hieronymus in Domino salutem. Mirari non desino exactionis vestrae instantiam. Exigitis enim, ut librum chaldeo sermone conscriptum ad latinum stilum traham, librum utique Tobiae, quem Hebraei de catalogo divinarum Scripturarum secantes, his quae Agiografa memorant manciparunt. Feci satis desiderio vestro, non tamen meo studio. Arguunt enim nos Hebraeorum studia et inputant
[3 Esdras 9:14-56]
9: And do his will, and separate yourselves from the heathen of the land, and from the strange women. 10: Then cried the whole multitude, and said with a loud voice, Like as thou hast spoken, so will we do. 11: But forasmuch as the people are many, and it is foul weather, so that we cannot stand without, and this is not a work of a day or two, seeing our sin in these things is spread far: 12: Therefore let the rulers of the multitude stay, and let all them of our habitations that have strange wives come at the time appointed, 13: And with them the rulers and judges of every place, till we turn away the wrath of the Lord from us for this matter. 14: Then Jonathan the son of Azael and Ezechias the son of Theocanus accordingly took this matter upon them: and Mosollam and Levis and Sabbatheus helped them. 15: And they that were of the captivity did according to all these things. 16: And Esdras the priest chose unto him the principal men of their families, all by name: and in the first day of the tenth month they sat together to examine the matter. 17: So their cause that held strange wives was brought to an end in the first day of the first month. 18: And of the priests that were come together, and had strange wives, there were found: 19: Of the sons of Jesus the son of Josedec, and his brethren; Matthelas and Eleazar, and Joribus and Joadanus. 20: And they gave their hands to put away their wives and to offer rams to make reconcilement for their errors. 21: And of the sons of Emmer; Ananias, and Zabdeus, and Eanes, and Sameius, and Hiereel, and Azarias. 22: And of the sons of Phaisur; Elionas, Massias Israel, and Nathanael, and Ocidelus and Talsas. 23: And of the Levites; Jozabad, and Semis, and Colius, who was called Calitas, and Patheus, and Judas, and Jonas. 24: Of the holy singers; Eleazurus, Bacchurus. 25: Of the porters; Sallumus, and Tolbanes. 26: Of them of Israel, of the sons of Phoros; Hiermas, and Eddias, and Melchias, and Maelus, and Eleazar, and Asibias, and Baanias. 27: Of the sons of Ela; Matthanias, Zacharias, and Hierielus, and Hieremoth, and Aedias. 28: And of the sons of Zamoth; Eliadas, Elisimus, Othonias, Jarimoth, and Sabatus, and Sardeus. 29: Of the sons of Babai; Johannes, and Ananias and Josabad, and Amatheis. 30: Of the sons of Mani; Olamus, Mamuchus, Jedeus, Jasubus, Jasael, and Hieremoth. 31: And of the sons of Addi; Naathus, and Moosias, Lacunus, and Naidus, and Mathanias, and Sesthel, Balnuus, and Manasseas. 32: And of the sons of Annas; Elionas and Aseas, and Melchias, and Sabbeus, and Simon Chosameus. 33: And of the sons of Asom; Altaneus, and Matthias, and Baanaia, Eliphalet, and Manasses, and Semei. 34: And of the sons of Maani; Jeremias, Momdis, Omaerus, Juel, Mabdai, and Pelias, and Anos, Carabasion, and Enasibus, and Mamnitanaimus, Eliasis, Bannus, Eliali, Samis, Selemias, Nathanias: and of the sons of Ozora; Sesis, Esril, Azaelus, Samatus, Zambis, Josephus. 35: And of the sons of Ethma; Mazitias, Zabadaias, Edes, Juel, Banaias. 36: All these had taken strange wives, and they put them away with their children. 37: And the priests and Levites, and they that were of Israel, dwelt in Jerusalem, and in the country, in the first day of the seventh month: so the children of Israel were in their habitations. 38: And the whole multitude came together with one accord into the broad place of the holy porch toward the east: 39: And they spake unto Esdras the priest and reader, that he would bring the law of Moses, that was given of the Lord God of Israel. 40: So Esdras the chief priest brought the law unto the whole multitude from man to woman, and to all the priests, to hear law in the first day of the seventh month. 41: And he read in the broad court before the holy porch from morning unto midday, before both men and women; and the multitude gave heed unto the law. 42: And Esdras the priest and reader of the law stood up upon a pulpit of wood, which was made for that purpose. 43: And there stood up by him Mattathias, Sammus, Ananias, Azarias, Urias, Ezecias, Balasamus, upon the right hand: 44: And upon his left hand stood Phaldaius, Misael, Melchias, Lothasubus, and Nabarias. 45: Then took Esdras the book of the law before the multitude: for he sat honourably in the first place in the sight of them all. 46: And when he opened the law, they stood all straight up. So Esdras blessed the Lord God most High, the God of hosts, Almighty. 47: And all the people answered, Amen; and lifting up their hands they fell to the ground, and worshipped the Lord. 48: Also Jesus, Anus, Sarabias, Adinus, Jacubus, Sabateas, Auteas, Maianeas, and Calitas, Asrias, and Joazabdus, and Ananias, Biatas, the Levites, taught the law of the Lord, making them withal to understand it. 49: Then spake Attharates unto Esdras the chief priest. and reader, and to the Levites that taught the multitude, even to all, saying, 50: This day is holy unto the Lord; (for they all wept when they heard the law:) 51: Go then, and eat the fat, and drink the sweet, and send part to them that have nothing; 52: For this day is holy unto the Lord: and be not sorrowful; for the Lord will bring you to honour. 53: So the Levites published all things to the people, saying, This day is holy to the Lord; be not sorrowful. 54: Then went they their way, every one to eat and drink, and make merry, and to give part to them that had nothing, and to make great cheer; 55: Because they understood the words wherein they were instructed, and for the which they had been assembled.
Here ends the third book of Esdras. Here begins the prologue of St. Jerome the Presbyter to the book of Tobit.
Jerome to the Bishops in the Lord Cromatius and Heliodorus, health! I do not cease to wonder at the constancy of your demanding. For you demand that I bring a book written in the Chaldean language into Latin writing, indeed the book of Tobias, which the Hebrews exclude from the catalogue of Divine Scriptures, being mindful of those things which they have titled Hagiographa. I have done enough for your desire, yet not by my study. For the studies of the Hebrews rebuke us and find fault with us...
Denison University Leaf 19 Verso
nobis, contra suum canonem latinis auribus ista transferre. Sed melius esse iudicans Pharisaeorum displicere iudicio et episcoporum iussionibus deservire, institi ut potui, et quia vicina est Chaldeorum lingua serrnoni hebraico, utriusque linguae peritissimum loquacem repperiens, unius diei laborem arripui et quicquid ille mihi hebraicis verbis expressit, haec ego accito notario, sermonibus latinis exposui. Orationibus vestris mercedem huius operis conpensabo, cum gratum vobis didicero me quod iubere estis dignati conplesse.
Explicit prologus. Incipit liber Tobie.
Tobías ex tribu et civitáte Nephtháli (quæ est in superióribus Galilǽæ supra Naásson, post viam quæ ducit ad occidéntem, in sinístro habens civitátem Sephet) cum captus esset in diébus Salmanásar regis Assyriórum, in captivitáte tamen pósitus, viam veritátis non deséruit, ita ut ómnia quæ habére póterat, quotídie concaptívis frátribus, qui erant ex ejus génere, impertíret. Cumque esset júnior ómnibus in tribu Nephtháli, nihil tamen pueríle gessit in ópere. Dénique, cum irent omnes ad vítulos áureos quos Jeróboam fécerat rex Ísraël, hic solus fugiébat consórtia ómnium. Sed pergébat in Jerúsalem ad templum Dómini, et ibi adorábat Dóminum Deum Ísraël, ómnia primitíva sua et décimas suas fidéliter ófferens, ita ut in tértio anno prosélytis et ádvenis ministráret omnem decimatiónem. Hæc et his simília secúndum legem Dei puérulus observábat. Cum vero factus esset vir, accépit uxórem Annam de tribu sua, genuítque ex ea fílium, nomen suum impónens ei: quem ab infántia timére Deum dócuit, et abstinére ab omni peccáto. Ígitur, cum per captivitátem devenísset cum uxóre sua et fílio in civitátem Níniven cum omni tribu sua (cum omnes éderent ex cibis gentílium), iste custodívit ánimam suam, et numquam contaminátus est in escis eórum. Et quóniam memor fuit Dómini in toto corde suo, dedit illi Deus grátiam in conspéctu Salmanásar regis, et dedit illi potestátem quocúmque vellet ire, habens libertátem quæcúmque fácere voluísset. Pergébat ergo ad omnes qui erant in captivitáte, et mónita salútis dabat eis. Cum autem venísset in Rages civitátem Medórum, et ex his quibus honorátus fúerat a rege, habuísset decem talénta argénti: et cum in multa turba géneris sui Gá-
-belum egéntem vidéret, qui erat ex tribu ejus, sub chirográpho dedit illi memorátum pondus argénti. Post multum vero témporis, mórtuo Salmanásar rege, cum regnáret Sennácherib fílius ejus pro eo, et fílios Ísraël exósos habéret in conspéctu suo, Tobías quotídie pergébat per omnem cognatiónem suam, et consolabátur eos, dividebátque unicuíque, prout póterat, de facultátibus suis: esuriéntes alébat, nudísque vestiménta præbébat, et mórtuis atque occísis sepultúram sollícitus exhibébat. Dénique cum revérsus esset rex Sennácherib, fúgiens a Judǽa plagam quam circa eum fécerat Deus propter blasphémiam suam, et irátus multos occíderet ex fíliis Ísraël, Tobías sepeliébat córpora eórum. At ubi nuntiátum est regi, jussit eum occídi, et tulit omnem substántiam ejus. Tobías vero cum fílio suo et cum uxóre suo fúgiens, nudus látuit, quia multi diligébant eum. Post dies vero quadragínta quinque occidérunt regem fílii ipsíus, et revérsus est Tobías in domum suam, omnísque facúltas ejus restitúta est ei. II. Post hæc vero, cum esset dies festus Dómini, et factum esset prándium bonum in domo Tobíæ, dixit fílio suo: Vade, et adduc áliquos de tribu nostra, timéntes Deum, ut epuléntur nobíscum. Cumque abiísset, revérsus nuntiávit ei unum ex fíliis Ísraël jugulátum jácere in platéa. Statímque exíliens de accúbitu suo, relínquens prándium, jejúnus pervénit ad corpus: tollénsque illud portávit ad domum suam occúlte, ut dum sol occubuísset, caute sepelíret eum. Cumque occultásset corpus, manducávit panem cum luctu et tremóre, mémorans illum sermónem, quem dixit Dóminus per Amos prophétam: Dies festi vestri converténtur in lamentatiónem et luctum. Cum vero sol occubuísset, ábiit, et sepelívit eum. Arguébant autem eum omnes próximi ejus, dicéntes: Jam hujus rei causa intérfici jussus es, et vix effugísti mortis impérium, et íterum sépelis mórtuos? Sed Tobías plus timens Deum quam regem, rapiébat córpora occisórum, et occultábat in domo sua, et médiis nóctibus sepeliébat ea. Cóntigit autem ut quadam die fatigátus a sepultúra, véniens in domum suam, jactásset se juxta paríetem, et obdormísset, et ex nido hirúndinum dormiénti illi cálida stércora incíderent super óculos ejus, fierétque cæcus. Hanc autem tentatiónem ídeo permísit Dóminus eveníre illi, ut pósteris darétur exémplum patiéntiæ ejus, sicut et sancti Job. Nam cum ab infántia
...to translate this for the ears of Latins contrary to their canon. But it is better to be judging the opinion of the Pharisees to displease and to be subject to the commands of bishops. I have persisted as I have been able, and because the language of the Chaldeans is close to Hebrew speech, finding a speaker very skilled in both languages, I took to the work of one day, and whatever he expressed to me in Hebrew words, this, with a summoned scribe, I have set forth in Latin words. I will be paid the price of this work by your prayers, when, by your grace, I will have learned what you request to have been completed by me was worthy.
Here ends the prologue. Here begins the book of Tobit.
1 Tobias of the tribe and city of Nephtali, (which is in the upper parts of Galilee above Naasson, beyond the way that leadeth to the west, having on the right hand the city of Sephet,) 2 When he was made captive in the days of Salmanasar king of the Assyrians, even in his captivity, forsook not the way of truth, 3 But every day gave all he could get to his brethren his fellow captives, that were of his kindred. 4 And when he was younger than any of the tribe of Nephtali, yet did he no childish thing in his work. 5 Moreover when all went to the golden calves which Jeroboam king of Israel had made, he alone fled the company of all, 6 And went to Jerusalem to the temple of the Lord, and there adored the Lord God of Israel, offering faithfully all his firstfruits, and his tithes, 7 So that in the third year he gave all his tithes to the proselytes, and strangers. 8 These and such like things did he observe when but a boy according to the law of God. 9 But when he was a man, he took to wife Anna of his own tribe, and had a son by her, whom he called after his own name, 10 And from his infancy he taught him to fear God, and to abstain from all sin. 11 And when by the captivity he with his wife and his son and all his tribe was come to the city of Ninive, 12 (When all ate of the meats of the Gentiles) he kept his soul and never was defiled with their meats. 13 And because he was mindful of the Lord with all his heart, God gave him favour in the sight of Salmanasar the king. 14 And he gave him leave to go whithersoever he would, with liberty to do whatever he had a mind. 15 He therefore went to all that were in captivity, and gave them wholesome admonitions. 16 And when he was come to Rages a city of the Medes, and had ten talents of silver of that with which he had been honoured by the king: 17 And when amongst a great multitude of his kindred, he saw Gabelus in want, who was one of his tribe, taking a note of his hand he gave him the aforesaid sum of money. 18 But after a long time, Salmanasar the king being dead, when Sennacherib his son, who reigned in his place, had a hatred for the children of Israel: 19 Tobias daily went among all his kindred, and comforted them, and distributed to every one as he was able, out of his goods: 20 He fed the hungry, and gave clothes to the naked, and was careful to bury the dead, and they that were slain. 21 And when king Sennacherib was come back, fleeing from Judea by reason of the slaughter that God had made about him for his blasphemy, and being angry slew many of the children of Israel, Tobias buried their bodies. 22 But when it was told the king, he commanded him to be slain, and took away all his substance. 23 But Tobias fleeing naked away with his son and with his wife, lay concealed, for many loved him. 24 But after forty-five days, the king was killed by his own sons. 25 And Tobias returned to his house, and all his substance was restored to him.
1 But after this, when there was a festival of the Lord, and a good dinner was prepared in Tobias's house, 2 He said to his son: Go, and bring some of our tribe that fear God, to feast with us. 3 And when he had gone, returning he told him, that one of the children of Israel lay slain in the street. And he forthwith leaped up from his place at the table, and left his dinner, and came fasting to the body: 4 And taking it up carried it privately to his house, that after the sun was down, he might bury him cautiously. 5 And when he had hid the body, he ate bread with mourning and fear, 6 Remembering the word which the Lord spoke by Amos the prophet: Your festival days shall be turned into lamentation and mourning. 7 So when the sun was down, he went and buried him. 8 Now all his neighbours blamed him, saying: Once already commandment was given for thee to be slain because of this matter, and thou didst scarce escape the sentence of death, and dost thou again bury the dead? 9 But Tobias fearing God more than the king, carried off the bodies of them that were slain, and hid them in his house, and at midnight buried them. 10 Now it happened one day, that being wearied with burying, he came to his house, and cast himself down by the wall and slept, 11 And as he was sleeping, hot dung out of a swallow's nest fell upon his eyes, and he was made blind. 12 Now this trial the Lord therefore permitted to happen to him, that an example might be given to posterity of his patience, as also of holy Job. 13 For whereas he had always feared God from his infancy..