Cleveland Institute of Art Leaf 44
This leaf is from a German Bible made in the later fifteenth century; as Ege notes, it was made about 60 years after the invention of printing by movable type. The pages measure 41 x 28 cm, and the vellum is slightly yellowed and thick, bending easily. There is only vertical evidence of lining, which is done in red; the bulk of the text is in dark brown with red decoration. A singular feature is the significant repair to the upper inside corner of each leaf--i.e., toward the binding, not on the outer edge. See Denison University Leaf 44 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: 2 Chronicles 24:25-25:15 (recto) and 25:15-26:7 (verso).
Cleveland Institute of Art Leaf 44 Recto
sánguinis fílii Jojádæ sacerdótis, et occidérunt eum in léctulo suo, et mórtuus est: sepelierúntque eum in civitáte David, sed non in sepúlchris regum. Insidiáti vero sunt ei Zabad fílius Sémaath Ammanítidis, et Jozábad fílius Semmárith Moabítidis. Porro fílii ejus, ac summa pecúniæ quæ adunáta fúerat sub eo, et instaurátio domus Dei, scripta sunt diligéntius in libro regum: regnávit autem Amásias fílius ejus pro eo.
[~4 lines of rubrication untranscribed.]
Vigínti quinque annórum erat Amásias cum regnáre cœpísset, et vigínti novem annis regnávit in Jerúsalem: nomen matris ejus Joádan de Jerúsalem. Fecítque bonum in conspéctu Dómini, verúmtamen non in corde perfécto. Cumque roborátum sibi vidéret impérium, jugulávit servos qui occíderant regem patrem suum, sed fílios eórum non interfécit, sicut scriptum est in libro legis Móysi, ubi præcépit Dóminus, dicens: Non occidéntur patres pro fíliis, neque fílii pro pátribus suis, sed unusquísque in suo peccáto moriétur. Congregávit ígitur Amásias Judam, et constítuit eos per famílias, tribunósque et centuriónes in univérso Juda et Bénjamin: et recénsuit a vigínti annis supra, invenítque trecénta míllia júvenum qui egrederéntur ad pugnam, et tenérent hastam
et clýpeum: mercéde quoque condúxit de Israël centum míllia robustórum, centum taléntis argénti. Venit autem homo Dei ad illum, et ait: O rex, ne egrediátur tecum exércitus Israël: non est enim Dóminus cum Israël, et cunctis fíliis Éphraim: quod si putas in róbore exércitus bella consístere, superári te fáciet Deus ab hóstibus: Dei quippe est et adjuváre, et in fugam convértere. Dixítque Amásias ad hóminem Dei: Quid ergo fiet de centum taléntis, quæ dedi milítibus Israël? Et respóndit ei homo Dei: Habet Dóminus unde tibi dare possit multo his plura. Separávit ítaque Amásias exércitum qui vénerat ad eum ex Éphraim, ut reverterétur in locum suum: at illi contra Judam veheménter iráti, revérsi sunt in regiónem suam. Porro Amásias confidénter edúxit pópulum suum, et ábiit in vallem Salinárum, percussítque fílios Seir decem míllia: et ália decem míllia virórum cepérunt fílii Juda, et adduxérunt ad prærúptum cujúsdam petræ, præcipitaverúntque eos de summo in præceps: qui univérsi crepuérunt. At ille exércitus quem remíserat Amásias ne secum iret ad praelium, diffúsus est in civitátibus Juda, a Samaría usque ad Bethóron, et interféctis tribus míllibus, dirípuit prædam magnam. Amásias vero post cædem Idumæórum, et allátos deos filiórum Seir, státuit illos in deos sibi, et adorábat eos, et illis adolébat incénsum. Quam ob rem irátus Dóminus contra Amásiam misit ad illum prophétam,
[2 Chronicles 24:25-25:15, here called Paralipomenon]
...blood of the son of Joiada the priest, and they slew him in his bed, and he died: and they buried him in the city of David, but not in the sepulchres of the kings. 26 Now the men that conspired against him were Zabad the son of Semmaath an Ammonitess, and Jozabad the son of Semarith a Moabitess. 27 And concerning his sons, and the sum of money which was gathered under him, and the repairing the house of God; they are written more diligently in the book of kings: and Amasias his son reigned in his stead.
[~4 lines untranscribed.]
1 Amasias was five and twenty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned nine and twenty years in Jerusalem, the name of his mother was Joadan of Jerusalem. 2 And he did what was good in the sight of the Lord: but yet not with a perfect heart. 3 And when he saw himself strengthened in his kingdom, he put to death the servants that had slain the king his father. 4 But he slew not their children, as it is written in the book of the law of Moses, where the Lord commanded, saying: The fathers shall not be slain for the children, nor the children for their fathers, but every man shall die for his own sin. 5 Amasias therefore gathered Juda together, and appointed them by families, and captains of thousands and of hundreds in all Juda, and Benjamin: and he numbered them from twenty years old and upwards, and found three hundred thousand young men that could go out to battle, and could hold the spear and shield. 6 He hired also of Israel a hundred thousand valiant men, for a hundred talents of silver. 7 But a man of God came to him, and said: O king, let not the army of Israel go out with thee, for the Lord is not with Israel, and all the children of Ephraim: 8 And if thou think that battles consist in the strength of the army, God will make thee to be overcome by the enemies: for it belongeth to God both to help, and to put to flight. 9 And Amasias said to the man of God: What will then become of the hundred talents which I have given to the soldiers of Israeli and the man of God answered him: The Lord is rich enough to be able to give thee much more than this. 10 Then Amasias separated the army, that came to him out of Ephraim, to go home again: but they being much enraged against Juda, returned to their own country. 11 And Amasias taking courage led forth his people, and went to the vale of saltpits, and slew of the children of Seir ten thousand. 12 And other ten thousand men the sons of Juda took, and brought to the steep of a certain rock, and cast them down headlong from the top, and they all were broken to pieces. 13 But that army which Amasias had sent back, that they should not go with him to battle, spread themselves among the cities of Juda, from Samaria to Beth-horon, and having killed three thousand took away much spoil. 14 But Amasias after he had slain the Edomites, set up the gods of the children of Seir, which he had brought thence, to be his gods, and adored them, and burnt incense to them. 15 Wherefore the Lord being angry against Amasias, sent a prophet to him...
Cleveland Institute of Art Leaf 44 Verso
qui díceret ei: Cur adorásti deos qui non liberavérunt pópulum suum de manu tua? Cumque hæc ille loquerétur, respóndit ei: Num consiliárius regis es? quiésce, ne interfíciam te. Discedénsque prophéta: Scio, inquit, quod cogitáverit Deus occídere te quia fecísti hoc malum, et ínsuper non acquievísti consílio meo. Ígitur Amásias rex Juda ínito péssimo consílio, misit ad Joas fílium Jóachaz fílii Jehu regem Israël, dicens: Veni, videámus nos mútuo. At ille remísit núntios, dicens: Cárduus qui est in Líbano misit ad cedrum Líbani, dicens: Da fíliam tuam fílio meo uxórem: et ecce béstiæ quæ erant in silva Líbani, transiérunt, et conculcavérunt cárduum. Dixísti: Percússi Edom, et idcírco erígitur cor tuum in supérbiam: sede in domo tua: cur malum advérsum te próvocas, ut cadas et tu, et Juda tecum? Nóluit audíre Amásias, eo quod Dómini esset volúntas ut traderétur in manus hóstium propter deos Edom. Ascéndit ígitur Joas rex Israël, et mútuos sibi præbúere conspéctus: Amásias autem rex Juda erat in Bethsámes Juda: corruítque Juda coram Israël, et fugit in tabernácula sua. Porro Amásiam regem Juda, fílium Joas fílii Jóachaz, cepit Joas rex Israël in Bethsámes, et addúxit in Jerúsalem: destruxítque murum ejus a porta Éphraim usque ad portam ánguli quadringéntis cúbitis. Omne quoque aurum et argéntum, et univérsa vasa quæ repérerat in domo Dei, et apud Obéde-
-dom in thesáuris étiam domus régiæ, necnon et fílios óbsidum, redúxit in Samaríam. Vixit autem Amásias fílius Joas rex Juda, postquam mórtuus est Joas fílius Jóachaz rex Israël, quíndecim annis. Réliqua autem sermónum Amásiæ priórum et novissimórum scripta sunt in libro regum Juda et Israël. Qui postquam recéssit a Dómino, tetendérunt ei insídias in Jerúsalem. Cumque fugísset in Lachis, misérunt, et interfecérunt eum ibi. Reportantésque super equos, sepeliérunt eum cum pátribus suis in civitáte David.
[3 lines untranscribed.]
Omnis autem pópulus Juda fílium ejus Ozíam, annórum sédecim, constítuit regem pro Amásia patre suo. Ipse ædificávit Áilath, et restítuit eam ditióni Juda, postquam dormívit rex cum pátribus suis. Sédecim annórum erat Ozías cum regnáre cœpísset, et quinquagínta duóbus annis regnávit in Jerúsalem: nomen matris ejus Jechélia de Jerúsalem. Fecítque quod erat rectum in óculis Dómini, juxta ómnia quæ fécerat Amásias pater ejus. Et exquisívit Dóminum in diébus Zacharíæ intelligéntis et vidéntis Deum: cumque requíreret Dóminum, diréxit eum in ómnibus. Dénique egréssus est, et pugnávit contra Philísthiim, et destrúxit murum Geth, et murum Jábniæ, murúmque Azóti: ædificávit quoque óppida in Azóto et in Philísthiim. Et adjúvit eum Deus contra Philísthiim, et contra Árabes
[2 Chronicles 25:15-26:7, here called Paralipomenon]
...to say to him: Why hast thou adored gods that have not delivered their own people out of thy hand? 16 And when he spoke these things, he answered him: Art thou the king's counsellor? be quiet, lest I kill thee. And the prophet departing, said: I know that God is minded to kill thee, because thou hast done this evil, and moreover hast not hearkened to my counsel. 17 Then Amasias king of Juda taking very bad counsel, sent to Joas the son of Joachaz the son of Jehu, king of Israel, saying: Come, let us see one another. 18 But he sent back the messengers, saying: The thistle that is in Libanus, sent to the cedar in Libanus, saying: Give thy daughter to my son to wife: and behold the beasts that were in the wood of Libanus passed by, and trod down the thistle. 19 Thou hast said: I have overthrown Edom, and therefore thy heart is lifted up with pride: stay at home, why dost thou provoke evil against thee, that both thou shouldst fall and Juda with thee. 20 Amasias would not hearken to him, because it was the Lord's will that he should be delivered into the hands of enemies, because of the gods of Edom. 21 So Joas king of Israel went up, and they presented themselves to be seen by one another: and Amasias king of Juda was in Bethsames of Juda: 22 And Juda fell before Israel and they fled to their dwellings. 23 And Joas king of Israel took Amasias king of Juda, the son of Joas, the son Joachaz, in Bethsames, and brought him to Jerusalem: and broke down the walls thereof from the gate of Ephraim, to the gate of the corner, four hundred cubits. 24 And he took all the gold, and silver, and all the vessels, that he found in the house of God, and with Obededom, and in the treasures of the king's house, moreover also the sons of the hostages, he brought back to Samaria. 25 And Amasias the son of Joas king of Juda lived, after the death of Joas the son of Joachaz king of Israel, fifteen years. 26 Now the rest of the acts of Amasias, the first and last, are written in the book of the kings of Juda and Israel. 27 And after he revolted from the Lord, they made a conspiracy against him in Jerusalem. And he fled into Lachis, and they sent, and killed him there. 28 And they brought him back upon horses, and buried him with his fathers in the city of David.
[3 lines untranscribed.]
1 And all the people of Juda took his son Ozias, who was sixteen years old, and made him king in the room of Amasias his father. 2 He built Ailath, and restored it to the dominion of Juda, after that the king slept with his fathers. 3 Ozias was sixteen years old when he began to reign, and he reigned two and fifty years in Jerusalem: the name of his mother was Jechelia of Jerusalem. 4 And he did that which was right in the eyes of the Lord, according to all that Amasias his father had done. 5 And he sought the Lord in the days of Zacharias that understood and saw God: and as long as he sought the Lord, he directed him in all things. 6 Moreover he went forth and fought against the Philistines, and broke down the wall of Geth, and the wall of Jabnia, and the wall of Azotus: and he built towns in Azotus, and among the Philistines. 7 And God helped him against the Philistines, and against the Arabians...