University of Massachusetts, Amherst Leaf 14
This leaf comes from a French Bible of the late thirteenth century. The vellum is thin, white, and supple with minimal yellowing, measuring a substantial 40.5 x 27 cm. Lining is done in light ink or lead, and the script is an angular gothic. The bulk of the text is in brown ink, with red, blue, coral, white, and beige for the decorations. This leaf is heavily illuminated and decorated, including elaborate initials and foliage, highlighted book names and chapter numbers, and extensive use of gold leaf. But while the decoration is exceptional, we see on these leaves an unusual number of scribal corrections (especially erasures and strikethroughs). See Denison University Leaf 14 for more information about this manuscript.
Text: Hebrews 1:13-4:6 (recto) and 4:6-6:20 (verso).
University of Massachusetts, Amherst Leaf 14 Recto
quándo: Sede a dextris meis, quoadúsque ponam inimícos tuos scabéllum pedum tuórum. Nonne omnes sunt administratórii spíritus, in ministérium missi propter eos, qui haereditátem cápient salútis. II. Proptérea abundántius opórtet observáre nos ea quae audívimus, ne forte pereffluámus. Si enim qui per ángelos dictus est sermo, factus est firmus, et omnis prævaricátio, et inobediéntia accépit justam mercédis retributiónem: quómodo nos effugiémus si tantam neglexérimus salútem quae cum inítium accepísset enarrári per Dóminum ab eis, qui audiérunt, in nos confirmáta est, contestánte Deo signis et porténtis, et váriis virtútibus, et Spíritus Sancti distributiónibus secúndum suam voluntátem. Non enim ángelis subjécit Deus orbem terrae futúrum, de quo lóquimur. Testátus est autem in quodam loco quis, dicens: Quid est homo quod memor es ejus, aut fílius hóminis quóniam vísitas eum? Minuísti eum paulo minus ab ángelis: glória et honóre coronásti eum: et constituísti eum super ópera mánuum tuárum. Ómnia subjecísti sub pédibus ejus. In eo enim quod ómnia ei subjécit, nihil dimísit non subjéctum ei. Nunc autem necdum vidémus ómnia subjécta ei. Eum autem, qui módico quam ángeli minorátus est, vidémus Jesum propter passiónem mortis, glória et honóre coronátum: ut, grátia Dei, pro ómnibus gustáret mortem. Decébat enim eum, propter quem ómnia, et per quem ómnia, qui multos fílios in glóriam addúxerat, auctórem salútis eórum per passiónem consummáre. Qui enim sanctíficat, et qui sanctificántur, ex uno omnes. Propter quam causam non confúnditur fratres eos vocáre, dicens: Nuntiábo nomen tuum frátribus meis: in médio ecclésiae laudábo te. Et íterum: Ego ero fidens in eum. Et íterum: Ecce ego, et púeri mei, quos dedit mihi Deus. Quia ergo púeri communicavérunt carni, et sánguini, et ipse simíliter participávit eísdem: ut per mortem destrúeret eum qui habébat mortis impérium, id est, diábolum: et liberáret eos qui timóre mortis per totam vitam obnóxii erant servitúti. Nusquam enim ángelos apprehéndit, sed semen Ábrahæ apprehéndit. Unde débuit per ómnia frátribus similári, ut miséricors fíeret, et fidélis póntifex ad Deum, ut repropitiáret delícta pópuli. In eo enim, in quo passus est ipse et tentátus, potens est et eis, qui tentántur, auxiliári. III. Unde, fratres sancti, vocatiónis caeléstis partícipes, consideráte Apóstolum, et pontíficem confessiónis nostrae Jesum: qui fidélis est ei, qui fecit
illum, sicut et Móyses in omni domo ejus. Amplióris enim glóriae iste prae Móyse dignus est hábitus, quanto ampliórem honórem habet domus, qui fabricávit illam. Omnis namque domus fabricátur ab áliquo: qui autem ómnia creávit, Deus est. Et Móyses quidem fidélis erat in tota domo ejus tamquam fámulus, in testimónium eórum, quae dicénda erant: Christus vero tamquam fílius in domo sua: quae domus sumus nos, si fidúciam, et glóriam spei usque ad finem, firmam retineámus. Quaprópter sicut dicit Spíritus Sanctus: Hódie si vocem ejus audiéritis, nolíte obduráre corda vestra, sicut in exacerbatióne secúndum diem tentatiónis in desérto, ubi tentavérunt me patres vestri: probavérunt, et vidérunt ópera mea quadragínta annis: propter quod infénsus fui generatióni huic, et dixi: Semper errant corde. Ipsi autem non cognovérunt vias meas, sicut jurávi in ira mea: Si introíbunt in réquiem meam. Vidéte fratres, ne forte sit in áliquo vestrum cor malum incredulitátis, discedéndi a Deo vivo: sed adhortámini vosmetípsos per síngulos dies, donec hódie cognominátur, ut non obdurétur quis ex vobis fallácia peccáti. Partícipes enim Christi effécti sumus, si tamen inítium substántiae ejus usque ad finem firmum retineámus. Dum dícitur: Hódie si vocem ejus audiéritis, nolíte obduráre corda vestra, quemádmodum in illa exacerbatióne. Quidam enim audiéntes exacerbavérunt: sed non univérsi qui profécti sunt ex AEgýpto per Móysen. Quibus autem infénsus est quadragínta annis? nonne illis qui peccavérunt, quorum cadávera prostráta sunt in desérto? Quibus autem jurávit non introíre in réquiem ipsíus, nisi illis qui incréduli fuérunt? Et vidémus, quia non potuérunt introíre propter incredulitátem. IIII. Timeámus ergo ne forte relícta pollicitatióne introëúndi in réquiem ejus, existimétur áliquis ex vobis deésse. Étenim et nobis nuntiátum est, quemádmodum et illis: sed non prófuit illis sermo audítus, non admístus fídei ex iis quae audiérunt. Ingrediémur enim in réquiem, qui credídimus: quemádmodum dixit: Sicut jurávi in ira mea: Si introíbunt in réquiem meam: et quidem opéribus ab institutióne mundi perféctis. Dixit enim in quodam loco de die séptima sic: Et requiévit Deus die séptima ab ómnibus opéribus suis. Et in isto rursum: Si introíbunt in réquiem meam. Quóniam ergo súperest introíre quosdam in illam, et ii, quibus prióribus annuntiátum est, non introiérunt propter incredulitá
...at any time: Sit on my right hand, until I make thy enemies thy footstool? 14 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent to minister for them, who shall receive the inheritance of salvation?
1 Therefore ought we more diligently to observe the things which we have heard, lest perhaps we should let them slip. 2 For if the word, spoken by angels, became steadfast, and every transgression and disobedience received a just recompense of reward: 3 How shall we escape if we neglect so great salvation? which having begun to be declared by the Lord, was confirmed unto us by them that heard him. 4 God also bearing them witness by signs, and wonders, and divers miracles, and distributions of the Holy Ghost, according to his own will. 5 For God hath not subjected unto angels the world to come, whereof we speak. 6 But one in a certain place hath testified, saying: What is man, that thou art mindful of him: or the son of man, that thou visitest him? 7 Thou hast made him a little lower than the angels: thou hast crowned him with glory and honour, and hast set him over the works of thy hands: 8 Thou hast subjected all things under his feet. For in that he hath subjected all things to him, he left nothing not subject to him. But now we see not as yet all things subject to him. 9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honour: that, through the grace of God, he might taste death for all. 10 For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, who had brought many children into glory, to perfect the author of their salvation, by his passion. 11 For both he that sanctifieth, and they who are sanctified, are all of one. For which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren, saying: 12 I will declare thy name to my brethren; in the midst of the church will I praise thee. 13 And again: I will put my trust in him. And again: Behold I and my children, whom God hath given me. 14 Therefore because the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself in like manner hath been partaker of the same: that, through death, he might destroy him who had the empire of death, that is to say, the devil: 15 And might deliver them, who through the fear of death were all their lifetime subject to servitude. 16 For no where doth he take hold of the angels: but of the seed of Abraham he taketh hold. 17 Wherefore it behoved him in all things to be made like unto his brethren, that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest before God, that he might be a propitiation for the sins of the people. 18 For in that, wherein he himself hath suffered and been tempted, he is able to succour them also that are tempted.
1 Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly vocation, consider the apostle and high priest of our confession, Jesus: 2 Who is faithful to him that made him, as was also Moses in all his house. 3 For this man was counted worthy of greater glory than Moses, by so much as he that hath built the house, hath greater honour than the house. 4 For every house is built by some man: but he that created all things, is God. 5 And Moses indeed was faithful in all his house as a servant, for a testimony of those things which were to be said: 6 But Christ as the Son in his own house: which house are we, if we hold fast the confidence and glory of hope unto the end. 7 Wherefore, as the Holy Ghost saith: To day if you shall hear his voice, 8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation; in the day of temptation in the desert, 9 Where your fathers tempted me, proved and saw my works, 10 Forty years: for which cause I was offended with this generation, and I said: They always err in heart. And they have not known my ways, 11 As I have sworn in my wrath: If they shall enter into my rest. 12 Take heed, brethren, lest perhaps there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, to depart from the living God. 13 But exhort one another every day, whilst it is called to day, that none of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin. 14 For we are made partakers of Christ: yet so, if we hold the beginning of his substance firm unto the end. 15 While it is said, To day if you shall hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as in that provocation. 16 For some who heard did provoke: but not all that came out of Egypt by Moses. 17 And with whom was he offended forty years? Was it not with them that sinned, whose carcasses were overthrown in the desert? 18 And to whom did he swear, that they should not enter into his rest: but to them that were incredulous? 19 And we see that they could not enter in, because of unbelief.
1 Let us fear therefore lest the promise being left of entering into his rest, any of you should be thought to be wanting. 2 For unto us also it hath been declared, in like manner as unto them. But the word of hearing did not profit them, not being mixed with faith of those things they heard. 3 For we, who have believed, shall enter into rest; as he said: As I have sworn in my wrath; If they shall enter into my rest; and this indeed when the works from the foundation of the world were finished. 4 For in a certain place he spoke of the seventh day thus: And God rested the seventh day from all his works. 5 And in this place again: If they shall enter into my rest. 6 Seeing then it remaineth that some are to enter into it, and they, to whom it was first preached, did not enter because of unbelief...
University of Massachusetts, Amherst Leaf 14 Verso
tem: íterum términat diem quemdam, Hódie, in David dicéndo, post tantum témporis, sicut supra dictum est: Hódie si vocem ejus audiéritis, nolíte obduráre corda vestra. Nam si eis Jesus réquiem præstitísset, numquam de ália loquerétur, posthac, die. Ítaque relínquitur sabbatísmus pópulo Dei. Qui enim ingréssus est in réquiem ejus, étiam ipse requiévit ab opéribus suis, sicut a suis Deus. Festinémus ergo íngredi in illam réquiem: ut ne in idípsum quis íncidat incredulitátis exémplum. Vivus est enim sermo Dei, et éfficax et penetrabílior omni gládio ancípiti: et pertíngens usque ad divisiónem ánimæ ac spíritus: cómpagum quoque ac medullárum, et discrétor cogitatiónum et intentiónum cordis. Et non est ulla creatúra invisíbilis in conspéctu ejus: ómnia autem nuda et apérta sunt óculis ejus, ad quem nobis sermo. Habéntes ergo pontíficem magnum qui penetrávit cælos, Jesum Fílium Dei, teneámus confessiónem. Non enim habémus pontíficem qui non possit compáti infirmitátibus nostris: tentátum autem per ómnia pro similitúdine absque peccáto. Adeámus ergo cum fidúcia ad thronum grátiae: ut misericórdiam consequámur, et grátiam inveniámus in auxílio opportúno. V. Omnis namque póntifex ex homínibus assúmptus, pro homínibus constitúitur in iis quae sunt ad Deum, ut ófferat dona, et sacrifícia pro peccátis: qui condolére possit iis qui ignórant et errant: quóniam et ipse circúmdatus est infirmitáte: et proptérea debet, quemádmodum pro pópulo, ita étiam et pro semetípso offérre pro peccátis. Nec quisquam sumit sibi honórem, sed qui vocátur a Deo, tamquam Áaron. Sic et Christus non semetípsum clarificávit ut póntifex fíeret: sed qui locútus est ad eum: Fílius meus es tu, ego hódie génui te. Quemádmodum et in álio loco dicit: Tu es sacérdos in aetérnum, secúndum órdinem Melchísedech. Qui in diébus carnis suae preces, supplicationésque ad eum qui possit illum salvum fácere a morte cum clamóre válido, et lácrimis ófferens, exaudítus est pro sua reveréntia. Et quidem cum esset Fílius Dei, dídicit ex iis, quæ passus est, obediéntiam: et consummátus, factus est ómnibus obtemperántibus sibi, causa salútis ætérnae, appellátus a Deo póntifex juxta órdinem Melchísedech. De quo nobis grandis sermo, et ininterpretábilis ad dicéndum: quóniam imbecílles facti estis ad audiéndum. Étenim cum deberétis magístri esse propter tempus, rursum indigétis ut vos doceámini quae sint eleménta exór-
-dii sermónum Dei: et facti estis quibus lacte opus sit, non sólido cibo. Omnis enim, qui lactis est párticeps, expers est sermónis justítiae: párvulus enim est. Perfectórum autem est sólidus cibus: eórum, qui pro consuetúdine exercitátos habent sensus ad discretiónem boni ac mali. VI. Quaprópter intermitténtes inchoatiónis Christi sermónem, ad perfectióra ferámur, non rursum jaciéntes fundaméntum poeniténtiae ab opéribus mórtuis, et fídei ad Deum, baptísmatum doctrínae, impositiónis quoque mánuum, ac resurrectiónis mortuórum, et judícii aetérni. Et hoc faciémus, si quidem permíserit Deus. Impossíbile est enim eos qui semel sunt illumináti, gustavérunt étiam donum caeléste, et partícipes facti sunt Spíritus Sancti, gustavérunt nihilóminus bonum Dei verbum, virtutésque saeculi ventúri, et prolápsi sunt; rursus renovári ad poeniténtiam, rursum crucifigéntes sibimetípsis Fílium Dei, et osténtui habéntes. Terra enim saepe veniéntem super se bibens imbrem, et génerans herbam opportúnam illis, a quibus cólitur, áccipit benedictiónem a Deo: próferens autem spinas ac tríbulos, réproba est, et maledícto próxima: cujus consummátio in combustiónem. Confídimus autem de vobis dilectíssimi melióra, et vicinióra salúti: tamétsi ita lóquimur. Non enim injústus Deus, ut obliviscátur óperis vestri, et dilectiónis, quam ostendístis in nómine ipsíus, qui ministrástis sanctis, et ministrátis. Cúpimus autem unumquémque vestrum eámdem ostentáre sollicitúdinem ad expletiónem spei usque in finem: ut non segnes efficiámini, verum imitatóres eórum, qui fide, et patiéntia haereditábunt promissiónes. Ábrahae namque promíttens Deus, quóniam néminem hábuit, per quem juráret, majórem, jurávit per semetípsum, dicens: Nisi benedícens benedícam te, et multíplicans multiplicábo te. Et sic longanímiter ferens, adéptus est repromissiónem. Hómines enim per majórem sui jurant: et omnis controvérsiae eórum finis, ad confirmatiónem, est juraméntum. In quo abundántius volens Deus osténdere pollicitatiónis haerédibus, immobilitátem consílii sui, interpósuit jusjurándum: ut per duas res immóbiles, quibus impossíbile est mentíri Deum, fortíssimum solátium habeámus, qui confúgimus ad tenéndam propósitam spem, quam sicut anchóram habémus ánimae tutam ac firmam, et incedéntem usque ad interióra veláminis, ubi praecúrsor pro nobis introívit Jesus, secúndum órdinem Melchísedech póntifex factus in aetérnum.
...of unbelief: 7 Again he limiteth a certain day, saying in David, To day, after so long a time, as it is above said: To day if you shall hear his voice, harden not your hearts. 8 For if Jesus had given them rest, he would never have afterwards spoken of another day. 9 There remaineth therefore a day of rest for the people of God. 10 For he that is entered into his rest, the same also hath rested from his works, as God did from his. 11 Let us hasten therefore to enter into that rest; lest any man fall into the same example of unbelief. 12 For the word of God is living and effectual, and more piercing than any two edged sword; and reaching unto the division of the soul and the spirit, of the joints also and the marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart. 13 Neither is there any creature invisible in his sight: but all things are naked and open to his eyes, to whom our speech is. 14 Having therefore a great high priest that hath passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God: let us hold fast our confession. 15 For we have not a high priest, who can not have compassion on our infirmities: but one tempted in all things like as we are, without sin. 16 Let us go therefore with confidence to the throne of grace: that we may obtain mercy, and find grace in seasonable aid.
1 For every high priest taken from among men, is ordained for men in the things that appertain to God, that he may offer up gifts and sacrifices for sins: 2 Who can have compassion on them that are ignorant and that err: because he himself also is compassed with infirmity. 3 And therefore he ought, as for the people, so also for himself, to offer for sins. 4 Neither doth any man take the honour to himself, but he that is called by God, as Aaron was. 5 So Christ also did not glorify himself, that he might be made a high priest: but he that said unto him: Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee. 6 As he saith also in another place: Thou art a priest for ever, according to the order of Melchisedech. 7 Who in the days of his flesh, with a strong cry and tears, offering up prayers and supplications to him that was able to save him from death, was heard for his reverence. 8 And whereas indeed he was the Son of God, he learned obedience by the things which he suffered: 9 And being consummated, he became, to all that obey him, the cause of eternal salvation. 10 Called by God a high priest according to the order of Melchisedech. 11 Of whom we have much to say, and hard to be intelligibly uttered: because you are become weak to hear. 12 For whereas for the time you ought to be masters, you have need to be taught again what are the first elements of the words of God: and you are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. 13 For every one that is a partaker of milk, is unskillful in the word of justice: for he is a little child. 14 But strong meat is for the perfect; for them who by custom have their senses exercised to the discerning of good and evil.
1 Wherefore leaving the word of the beginning of Christ, let us go on to things more perfect, not laying again the foundation of penance from dead works, and of faith towards God, 2 Of the doctrine of baptisms, and imposition of hands, and of the resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. 3 And this will we do, if God permit. 4 For it is impossible for those who were once illuminated, have tasted also the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, 5 Have moreover tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, 6 And are fallen away: to be renewed again to penance, crucifying again to themselves the Son of God, and making him a mockery. 7 For the earth that drinketh in the rain which cometh often upon it, and bringeth forth herbs meet for them by whom it is tilled, receiveth blessing from God. 8 But that which bringeth forth thorns and briers, is reprobate, and very near unto a curse, whose end is to be burnt. 9 But, my dearly beloved, we trust better things of you, and nearer to salvation; though we speak thus. 10 For God is not unjust, that he should forget your work, and the love which you have shewn in his name, you who have ministered, and do minister to the saints. 11 And we desire that every one of you shew forth the same carefulness to the accomplishing of hope unto the end: 12 That you become not slothful, but followers of them, who through faith and patience shall inherit the promises. 13 For God making promise to Abraham, because he had no one greater by whom he might swear, swore by himself, 14 Saying: Unless blessing I shall bless thee, and multiplying I shall multiply thee. 15 And so patiently enduring he obtained the promise. 16 For men swear by one greater than themselves: and an oath for confirmation is the end of all their controversy. 17 Wherein God, meaning more abundantly to shew to the heirs of the promise the immutability of his counsel, interposed an oath: 18 That by two immutable things, in which it is impossible for God to lie, we may have the strongest comfort, who have fled for refuge to hold fast the hope set before us. 19 Which we have as an anchor of the soul, sure and firm, and which entereth in even within the veil; 20 Where the forerunner Jesus is entered for us, made a high priest for ever according to the order of Melchisedech.